玻利维亚人买新车的奇特风俗

编辑:给力英语新闻 更新:2018年3月14日 作者:珍妮·亚当斯(Jenny Adams)

我的第一感觉是,玻利维亚的科帕卡巴纳(Copacabana)看起来很像意大利的阿马尔菲海岸(Amalfi Coast)。从远处看,在的的喀喀湖(Lake Titicaca)暗黑色的汹涌湖水的另一边,这片土地看起来与阿马尔菲海岸相似,但略显干旱,山坡上坐落着色彩斑斓的房屋和土红色酒店。多岩石的海岸上坐落一道狭窄的白色沙滩。

但是一旦我进入广场,所有与阿马尔菲有关的想法都消失了。

科帕卡巴纳
科帕卡巴纳是从秘鲁进入玻利维亚的主要入境点
Copacabana is the main entry point for those travelling from Peru into Bolivia

在科帕卡巴纳崎岖颠簸的中心,在破旧的鹅卵石路面和明亮的市场之间,科帕卡巴纳圣母大教堂(Basilica of Our Lady of Copacabana)拔地而起,除了拱门旁边小巧精致的瓷砖之外,其余部分全部都是白色。这座城镇海拔3841米,令人难以置信。城镇在玻利维亚明丽的蓝天之上,空气稀薄。

"对于玻利维亚人和秘鲁人来说,这都是一个非常神圣的地方,"我的玻利维亚旅游向导古斯塔沃·莫拉莱斯(Gustavo Morales)告诉我。他解释说,科帕卡巴纳是从秘鲁进入玻利维亚的主要入境点。

"每年都有数千人来到这里,祈求帕查玛玛(Pachamama),或者说大地母亲赐福。据说,科帕卡巴纳的圣母可以延长机器和人类的寿命。任何时候购买任何汽车,你的第一次公路旅行一定要到科帕卡巴纳来,祈求未来的旅途安全。届时会有盛大的仪式。"

科帕卡巴纳
人们把新车开到科帕卡巴纳,祈求保佑
People bring their new cars to Copacabana to have them blessed

我们徒步穿越数十辆怠速车,这些车的保险杠至挡泥板都用鲜花加以装饰。身披充满活力的阿瓜约(传统编织披肩)的老太太提起沉重的黑色裙子爬上梯子。他们在车顶放上剑兰,而祭司走在他们身后,用塑料桶里的圣水冲洗引擎。我可以听到西班牙语和艾马拉(Aymara)原住民安第斯语的敬酒和对话的热烈嘈杂声。

"很多来这里的车都是二手车,"莫拉莱斯说。"但因为这些车对拥有他们的人来说是新车,所以它们需要祝福。这些祝福实际上是为了祈祷新车里的驾驶员和乘车者旅途平安。"

他说,有些人从拉巴斯(La Paz),奥鲁罗(Oruro),甚至圣克鲁斯(Santa Cruz de la Sierra)或波托西(Potosí)来朝圣。

莫拉莱斯解释说,祝福之后,车主和当地人将啤酒倒在汽车上,为帕查玛玛解渴。我可以看到在他们泼洒啤酒的地方,鹅卵石被弄脏了。

"祭司不会倒啤酒,但有时如果天气炎热,你可能会看到有人会喝一口啤酒,"他说。"啤酒真的是车主自己庆祝的标志。在一辆车被祝福之后,就是庆祝的时间了。并且,玻利维亚人和秘鲁人都爱喝酒,所以庆祝仪式越来越热闹。"

"玫瑰花瓣有什么用呢?"我问道。

"玫瑰花瓣是身份的象征,"莫拉莱斯说。"它们被扔在车上,啤酒帮助花瓣粘住。这样,你开车回家的时候,路上遇到的每一个人都知道你有一辆新车,并且已经在科帕卡巴纳得到了祝福。"

啤酒
祝福结束后,车主们将啤酒倒在汽车上,为帕查玛玛,或者说地球母亲解渴
After the blessing, owners pour beer on the cars to quench the thirst of Pachamama, or Mother Earth

根据莫拉莱斯的说法,这种奇特的汽车和啤酒祝福始于20世纪40年代或50年代,当时大多数玻利维亚人和秘鲁人都能买得起一辆家用汽车。无法将船只、房屋、牲畜或土地带到科帕卡巴纳圣母大教堂,那些寻求好运的人就把他们拥有的最昂贵、而且可以移动的大件物品——他们的汽车——带到了这个信仰圣地。

然而,这座城市作为一个朝圣地崛起的时间远远早于人们买得起汽车的时间。事实上,在发明汽车的大约3个世纪之前,这里就被视为圣地了。

"科帕卡巴纳是打开古老的印加神庙伊斯拉德尔索尔(Isla del Sol)入口的地区,"圣克鲁斯加利福尼亚大学(University of California at Santa Cruz)教授兼人类学家、玻利维亚文化专家吉耶尔莫·德尔加多(Guillermo Delgado)说。"故事开始于科帕卡瓦纳(Copacawana)——这个城镇的原名——那里有一个专门用于敬拜太阳的神庙,被认为是印加人之神。科帕卡瓦纳成为被选中的贞女的神庙和住所。"

当16世纪初基督教徒从西班牙抵达时,牧师们迫切希望将当地的艾马拉居民转变为天主教徒。除现有的太阳和地球母亲,他们追加了对圣母玛利亚的敬拜。

"这是一个所谓的'跨文化'的过程……对以前的基督教文化层面的认知,"德尔加多说。"他们几乎相互补充,而不是互相反对"。

啤酒
古斯塔沃·莫拉莱斯:"啤酒真的是车主自己庆祝的标志"
Gustavo Morales: “The beer is really something that came about as a mark of celebration by the car owners themselves”

这些宗教协同工作,有助于巩固科帕卡巴纳作为一个圣地的声誉——这一点还得到了两个传说的支持。

第一个是在16世纪后期,据说一位名叫蒂托·尤潘基(Tito Yupanqui)的印加商人使用一种特别黑的木头雕刻了一尊1米多高的圣母玛利亚雕像。有些故事宣称尤潘基甚至不是一个艺术家,而是在神的指导下,专门学会了雕刻这一个被浪漫地称为莫里纳(Morena)、黑暗圣母(Dark Virgin)或黑麦当娜(Black Madonna)的雕像。

第二个传说以巴西渔民为中心,据说他们卷入了的的喀喀湖上的一场可怕风暴,是被黑暗圣母雕像安全地带到岸边,或者因为向圣母玛利亚(Virgin Mary)祈祷,才免于溺水身亡。巴西著名的科帕卡巴纳海滩因此而得名,以表达对玻利维亚科帕卡巴纳神圣雕像的敬意。

"据了解,1621年,奥古斯丁牧师拉莫斯·加维兰(Ramos Gavilán)撰写了一部包含科帕卡巴纳圣母的132个'神迹'的故事集。"德尔加多说。"巴西渔民'神迹'似乎是同类故事的变种中最受欢迎的一个。"

朝圣
早在汽车发明之前,科帕卡巴纳就已成为朝圣之地
Copacabana became a place of pilgrimage long before the vehicle was invented

尽管没有人能确切地说出雕像究竟是如何诞生的——但它确实存在。它启发了人们在16世纪80年代建造用于专门存放它的小教堂。那座小教堂在几个世纪以来不断扩建,于1620年左右建成一座大教堂,并最终演变成现在的科帕卡巴纳圣母大教堂,该大教堂于1805年完工。游客如今依然能在这里找到黑暗圣母雕像。

"这座雕像永远不能从圣殿中移走,"莫拉莱斯说,"因为人们认为那样会导致一场可怕的洪水。"

在科帕卡巴纳著名的大教堂内,华丽的金丝饰品围绕着廊柱和拱门。鲜花摆满圣坛,蜡烛在昏暗的灯光下闪烁。在闪光的装饰的中央,这座雕像就矗立在一个带有机械底座的雕刻花纹的小型壁龛内。这使得牧师能够转动她,让她能够面向大教堂中的众多教徒,也能够俯瞰在边上更加私密的小教堂里的人。还有人说,这样圣母就可以兼顾秘鲁和玻利维亚两国。

祝福汽车
在科帕卡巴纳,祭司会任何一天祝福汽车,但星期六和星期日是最受欢迎的日子
Priests will bless a car any day of the week in Copacabana, though Saturday and Sunday are the most popular days

在科帕卡巴纳,祭司们会在一周的任何一天祝福汽车。然而,最受欢迎的日子是星期六和星期日,最喜庆的时期是狂欢节和复活节等宗教节日,以及分别在7月下旬和8月初的秘鲁和玻利维亚的独立日。

我想知道,除了你的车,你需要带些什么?

"汽车祝福大约需要花费200玻利维亚诺(Bolivianos)……人们最常购买的是一打一品脱的啤酒,"莫拉莱斯告诉我。"他们会用两到三瓶泼洒在车身,为帕玛查查解渴,然后把剩余的几瓶喝掉。理想情况下,最好在周末抵达并且过上一夜,因为在科帕卡巴纳,为新车祈福总是庆祝太过头。

The curious customs of Copacabana

My first thoughts were that Copacabana, Bolivia, looks a lot like Italy’s Amalfi Coast. From a distance, across the dark and choppy waters of Lake Titicaca, the land had a similar, slightly arid appearance, and the hillsides boasted clusters of brightly painted houses and terracotta-hued hotels. A thin, white swath of sandy beach lined the rocky shore.

But once I ventured into the main plaza, all thoughts of Amalfi vanished.

At Copacabana’s rough-and-tumble centre, among the worn cobblestones and bright markets, the Basilica of Our Lady of Copacabana rises stark white, save small, intricate tile work around the archways. The town is set at an incredible altitude of 3,841m, up in Bolivia’s blindingly bright-blue, thin-air skies.

“This is a very sacred place for both Bolivians and Peruvians,” Gustavo Morales, my Bolivian tour guide, told me, explaining that Copacabana is the main entry point for those travelling from Peru into Bolivia.

“Thousands of people come here every year for a blessing to Pachamama, or Mother Earth. It is said that the Virgin of Copacabana extends the life of machines and humans alike. Any time you buy any car, your first road trip must be here to Copacabana to have it blessed for safe journeys going forward. It’s a time of great celebration.”

We navigated on foot past dozens of idling cars, adorned bumper-to-fender in sprays of fresh flowers. Elderly ladies draped in vibrant aguayo (traditional woven shawls) hiked up their heavy, black skirts to climb stepladders. They placed gladiolas on car roofs while priests walked behind them, sprinkling exposed engines with holy water in plastic buckets. I could hear a lively din of toasts and conversations in both Spanish and the indigenous Andean language of Aymara.

“Many of the cars that come here are used cars,” Morales said. “But, since they are new to the person owning them, they need the blessing. The blessing is really for the people inside to have safe journeys in their new vehicle.”

Some people, he said, make the pilgrimage from La Paz, Oruro, or even as far as Santa Cruz de la Sierra or Potosí.

The blessing is really for the people inside to have safe journeys in their new vehicle

Morales explained that after the blessing, owners and locals pour beer on the cars to quench the thirst of Pachamama. I could see that in places the cobblestones were stained where the devoted had splashed their drinks.

“The priests won’t pour the beers, but sometimes if it’s a hot day, you might notice one having a sip,” he said. “The beer is really something that came about as a mark of celebration by the car owners themselves. After a car is blessed, it’s time for celebration. And, Bolivians and Peruvians both love drinking, so it’s only grown over time.”

“What’s with the rose petals?” I inquired.

“The rose petals are almost a status thing,” Morales said. “They are thrown at the cars, and the beer helps the petals stick. This way, when you drive off, everyone you pass on the way back home knows you’ve got a new car and that it’s been blessed in Copacabana.”

According to Morales, the curious car and beer blessing began sometime around the 1940s or ‘50s, when most Bolivians and Peruvians were able to afford a family car. Unable to bring boats, houses, livestock or land to the Basilica of Our Lady of Copacabana, those seeking good fortune brought the most expensive and large, yet mobile, item they owned – their cars – to this place of deep devotion.

However, the city’s rise as a place of pilgrimage began long before cars became affordable. In fact, it was considered sacred some three centuries prior to the vehicle even being invented.

“Copacabana is the area that opens the entrance to the Isla del Sol, an ancient shrine of the Incas,” said Guillermo Delgado, professor and anthropologist at the University of California at Santa Cruz and an expert on Bolivian culture. “The story starts in Copacawana – the town’s original name – where a shrine was devoted to the adoration of the Sun, considered to be the god of the Incas. Copacawana became a shrine and residence of the Acllas, the chosen women.”

When Christianity arrived from Spain in the early 16th Century, the priests were eager to convert the local Aymara inhabitants to Catholicism. They supplemented the Virgin Mary to the existing devotion to the sun and to Mother Earth.

“It’s a process that is called ‘transculturation’… a recognition of the previous cultural layer and the Christian one,” Delgado said. “They almost complement each other rather than oppose each other.”

These religions, working in tandem, helped solidify Copacabana’s growing reputation as a holy place – something that was additionally bolstered by two legends.

The first is set in the late 1500s, when an Incan tradesman named Tito Yupanqui is said to have carved a statue of the Virgin Mary, just more than 1m in height, using a particularly dark wood. Some stories proclaim that Yupanqui wasn’t even an artist, but that under guidance from the divine, he learned to sculpt specifically to bring forth this lone statue, known romantically as Morena, The Dark Virgin or the Black Madonna.

The second legend centres around Brazilian fishermen, who were said to be caught in a terrible tempest on Lake Titicaca and were saved from drowning either by the Dark Virgin statue, which led them safely to shore, or by praying to the Virgin Mary. Brazil’s famous Copacabana beach was named from this story; an homage to the sacred nature of Copacabana, Bolivia.

“Ramos Gavilán, an Augustinian priest in 1621, is known to have written about a collection of 132 ‘miracles’ that the Virgin de Copacabana realised,” Delgado said. “The Brazilian fisherman ‘miracle’ seems to have been one that was popularised, amid variants of the same story.”

Although no-one can say for sure how the statue came to be – it does exist. It inspired the construction of a small chapel specifically to house it in the 1580s. That chapel would grow over the centuries, becoming a cathedral around 1620 and eventually morphing into the current Basilica of Our Lady of Copacabana, which was fully finished in 1805. Visitors will still find the Dark Virgin statue there today.

“This statue is never to be removed from the temple,” Morales said, “because it is believed a terrible flood will happen.”

Inside Copacabana’s famous cathedral, ornate filigree curls around pillars and arches. Flowers spill from the altar and candles flicker in the dim light. At the centre of the gleaming finery, the statue stands in a small, carved niche with a mechanical base. This allows the priests to turn her so that she can face forward towards a busy Mass in the main chapel or overlook a smaller group in the more intimate chapel to the side. It is also said that, this way, she may look after both Peru and Bolivia.

Priests will bless a car any day of the week in Copacabana. However, the most popular days are Saturday and Sunday, with the most festive times being Carnival and religious holidays like Easter, as well as the Independence days for both Peru and Bolivia, which occur in late July and early August respectively.

There’s always a bit too much celebrating in Copacabana to safely drive your new car afterwards

Apart from your car, what do you need to bring, I wondered?

“It costs about 200 Bolivianos to have your car blessed… a dozen one-pint bottles of beer is what most people would buy,” Morales told me. “They would use two or three bottles on the body of the car and for spilling out to Pachamama, and then they’d drink the rest. Ideally, you arrive on a weekend and stay overnight. There’s always a bit too much celebrating in Copacabana to safely drive your new car afterwards.”