孟买凭什么成为外籍人士薪酬最高的城市

编辑:给力英语新闻 更新:2018年3月14日 作者:尼基尔·赫姆拉贾尼(Nikhil Hemrajani)

过去几个月,我和我的合伙人一直在孟买班达尔(Bandra)郊区的高档社区寻找一套舒适的小公寓。

我们经常碰到"涉外住房"这个词,指的是每月租金在20万至100万卢比(3,000至1.5万美元)的房子。这个数字对多数当地人来说都太高了:在班达尔,一套一居室的公寓租金约为5万至10万卢比(750至1,500美元)。但在班达尔、维里(Worli)和Breach Candy等地,这却并不罕见——这些都是孟买西海岸的高档社区,有很多咖啡厅、餐馆、商场和酒吧。

孟买的这些一流社区的居民都是全世界薪水最高的外籍人士。

孟买
班达尔殖民风格的小屋——这是孟买郊区的一片高档社区,那里住满了外国人
Colonial bungalow in Bandra - an upscale suburban neighbourhood in expat-filled Mumbai

"我听一些外国人每月光是住房补贴就高达100万至120万卢比(1.55万至1.85万美元)"最近刚刚搬回纽约的前银行家科林·沃尔克(Colin Walker)说,他之前在印度的两家跨国银行工作过7年。"担任高管职位的外国人期望能获得跟祖国一样标准的房子。"

孟买的外国人要拿到多高的工资才能住的起这么贵的房子?根据汇丰银行最新的调查数据,答案是:20万美元。他们甚至发现,孟买的外国人获得的薪水位居全球顶尖水平。

本周,汇丰银行发布了《2017外籍人士探索者调查》(2017 Expat Explorer Survey)的最新工资数据,这是针对159个国家或地区的2.7万外籍劳动者展开的调查。结果发现,孟买的外国人平均收入高达21.7165万美元。而同期的全球外籍人士平均收入为99,903美元,旧金山和伦敦分别为207,227美元和107,863美元。

孟买的外国人平均收入怎么会比全球平均水平高出这么多?

年龄更大、经验更丰富

汇丰外籍人士调查项目负责人迪恩·布莱克伯恩(Dean Blackburn)表示,孟买的外籍人士中,被雇主外派来的比例最高(44%)。"这些外籍人士经常可以获得安家费,这可以从一定程度上解释他们在这里享受的高工资。"他说。他还补充道,孟买的外籍人士就业率极高(高达89%,全球平均为78%),很多人都从事工程类工作。

年龄可能也是重要因素。例如,该调查发现,伦敦有52%的外籍人士是千禧一代。孟买的外籍劳动力年龄较大:35至54岁年龄段的占比为54%,而全球平均比例为45%。很显然,孟买的外籍人士年龄更大,更有经验。

跨国猎头公司Egon Zehnder合伙人威尼特·赫姆拉贾尼(Vineet Hemrajani)感觉,这很可能是孟买在该调查中领先的原因。"我们经常看到外国人身居高级管理职位,例如CEO,或者直接向CEO汇报工作,这都大幅拉高了平均数。"

孟买
对世界各地许多行业的外籍人士展开的调查发现,孟买的外国人薪水位居全球顶尖水平
A new study that surveyed expats in many industries across the world found that foreign workers in Mumbai are among the best paid

有人认为生活困难

人力资源专业人士普遍认为,从发达国家来到印度的外籍劳动者需要因为"艰苦"而获得补偿。

所谓的"艰苦津贴"包括住房成本、配有专职司机的汽车、高端医疗补助、俱乐部会员和教育费用。Ecole Mondiale World School和Ascend International School等印度国际学校一年的学费高达200万卢比(3万美元)。

艾利克斯·桑切斯
孟买吸引了各行各业的外籍人士——艾利克斯·桑切斯就是一名来自旧金山的行政总厨
Mumbai attracts expats across various industries - Alex Sanchez is an executive chef who moved from San Francisco

随着企业逐步压缩成本,很多地方的这种外籍人士薪酬包都已经成为过去。战略性人力资源咨询公司Banner Global Consulting首席执行官维斯迪·巴纳吉(Visty Banaji)表示,孟买终极职位也是如此。"然而,大型跨国公司的高级管理层不太可能出现这种情况。一家海外银行的印度负责人很有可能像过去一样在外派薪酬包里包括'住房、司机、孩子学费'。"

但巴纳吉表示,孟买的外籍人士平均薪酬可能被某些人大幅拉高,例如某些获得长期股票期权奖励的首席执行官。

他认为,为了反映更加实际的情况,这项调查应该提供中位数,而不是平均数。"孟买的调查数据之所以比较高,可能是因为其中的首席执行官、首席某某官和高级技术岗位比例过大。而按照政策,跨国公司可能仍有可能继续外派这些员工。到了这个级别,在孟买租一套豪华的新房子可能就会将平均薪酬数据大幅推高。"

但并非所有外国人都是拿着丰厚的待遇被跨国公司派到孟买。越来越多的独立创业者来到这里的餐饮行业担任厨师,或者加入宝莱坞的电影公司;有的人甚至开办了自己的咖啡厅、瑜伽中心和文化空间。

例如,亚历克斯·桑切斯(Alex Sanchez)7年前就来到印度,在备受赞誉的The Table餐厅担任行政总厨。他之前在旧金山和纽约担任厨师。"我不觉得这份调查能够代表餐饮行业。只有5星级酒店有这样的预算。我还没有在美国赚得多。但我有机会对这个行业产生影响。旧金山有100万家餐馆,还有100万位一流厨师。我在那里没有能力实现突破。"

孟买
与其他国家或地区的其他城市相比,孟买吸引了年龄较大、经验较丰富的外籍员工
Mumbai attracts older, more experienced workers as expats compared to other cities in other countries

一些艺术和文化领域的专业人士不喜欢被人统一贴上外籍人士的标签——从某种意义上讲,这个词专指富裕、傲慢的白人。在房地产行业,"涉外住房"代表富裕和奢华。

不光经纪人把外国人视作机会。对孟买教育创业公司Clap Global来说,这座城市流动的外国人提供了文化交换的资源。模式很简单:他们找到来印度的外国人,帮助他们跟附近的学校联系,请他们前去介绍自己的国家和文化。

该公司联合创始人史音·乔哈里(Shiryn Johari)感觉,儿童会在成长过程中不知不觉地吸收很多关于海外文化的刻板印象。这些偏见随后会成为成见。"当我跟世界各地像我这样20多岁的人交朋友时,我学会了去掉脑海里的预设。但孩子们为什么要像我一样等这么久再去根除偏见?"她说。

作为南孟买一家协作办公空间的联合创始人,荷兰人马里斯·布罗门达尔(Marlies Bloemendaal)并不把自己当做外国人。"我来这里不是为了钱,我没有与外界隔离,我来这里是因为我喜欢这座城市。借助好奇心和街头智慧,我学会了这里的一切。"

"事实上,我现在看到来这里创办自己公司的年轻企业家比以前多了很多,他们不再像以前那样进入企业担任员工。"

What makes Mumbai the best-paying city for expats?

For the last couple months, my partner and I have been scouting for a small and cosy apartment in the suburban upmarket neighbourhood of Bandra, Mumbai.

We have regularly come across the term ‘expat housing’, where rentals range from 200,000 to 1 million rupees ($3,000-$15,000) per month. This amount is exorbitant for most locals: in Bandra, an average one-bedroom apartment rents for around 50,000-100,000 rupees ($750-$1,500) a month. But it is far from uncommon in areas such as Bandra, Worli and Breach Candy, prime residential areas on Mumbai’s western coast that have their fair share of cafes, restaurants, malls, and pubs.

And living in those desirable neighbourhoods of Mumbai are some of the best-paid expats in the world.

“I’ve heard stories of expats who would get huge allowances in the range of 1-1.2 million rupees ($15,500-$18,500) per month just for housing,” says Colin Walker, a former banker who recently moved back home to the US after a seven-year stint in India at two multinational banks. “Senior-level expats expect to be provided with a house of the same standard as theirs back home,” he adds.

What kind of salaries must expats earn in Mumbai to afford such expensive housing? More than $200,000, according to new survey data from HSBC which found Mumbai expats to be among the highest-paid in the world.

This week, HSBC released new salary data from its 2017 Expat Explorer Survey, drawing on responses from 27,000 foreign workers in 159 countries. The survey found Mumbai expats earned an average of $217,165. The global average wage among expats sits at $99,903, while expats in San Francisco and London weigh in at $207,227 and $107,863 respectively.

How can it be that expats in Mumbai earn so much more than the global average?

Older, more experienced workers

Dean Blackburn, head of HSBC Expat, says Mumbai had the highest percentage (44%) of expats sent by their employer. “These expats often benefit from relocation packages, which goes some way in explaining the higher salaries expats enjoy in the city,” he says. He added that employment for expats was very high in Mumbai (89% versus the global average of 78%) and many work in engineering.

Age may well have something to do with it. For example, the survey found 52% of the expats in London were millennials. Mumbai’s expat workforce is older: 54% were aged 35-54, compared to the global average of 45%. Clearly, expats in Mumbai seem to be older and more experienced.

These expats often benefit from relocation packages, which goes some way in explaining the higher salaries expats enjoy in the city - Dean Blackburn

Vineet Hemrajani, a partner at global executive search firm Egon Zehnder, feels that this is very possibly the reason why Mumbai is currently leading the charts. “We tend to see many expat positions in top managerial roles, such as CEO, or those directly reporting to the CEO, which warps the average.”

Some think it’s a hard life

The general opinion among HR professionals is that foreign workers coming to India from more developed countries need to be compensated for the ‘hardship’.

The term for this is ‘hardship allowance’, which can include housing costs, a chauffeur-driven car, premium healthcare packages, club memberships and educational fees. Some of the international schools in Mumbai such as Ecole Mondiale World School and Ascend International School have annual fees as high as two million rupees ($30,000).

In much of the world, such expat packages are becoming a thing of the past as firms cut costs. And it’s true in Mumbai for mid-career positions too, says Visty Banaji, CEO of strategic HR consulting firm Banner Global Consulting. “However, it’s unlikely at very senior levels in large MNCs (multinational corporations). The India head of an overseas bank is very likely to have ‘housing, chauffeur and school fees for children’ as part of their expat package.”

But Banaji says Mumbai’s average expat wages can get badly skewed by some specific remuneration cases, like those of CEOs that include long-term incentives like stock options.

The India head of an overseas bank is very likely to have ‘housing, chauffeur and school fees for children’ as part of their expat package - Visty Banaji

He suggests that the survey should provide the median figures (as opposed to the mean), for a more realistic picture. “The Mumbai figures in the survey may be higher because they have a disproportionate representation of CEO, CXO and top technical positions that MNCs, as a policy, may continue to staff through expats. At these levels, rents in posh new housing complexes in Mumbai may push its average compensation figures still higher,” he says.

But not all expats are sent here by multinational corporations with all-access passes. A growing number of independent entrepreneurs come seeking roles in the hospitality industry as chefs, or in Bollywood film business; some even start their own cafes, yoga centres, and cultural spaces.

Alex Sanchez, for instance, came to India seven years ago as the executive chef of award-winning restaurant The Table. Before that, he worked at kitchens in San Francisco and New York. “I don’t think this survey is representative of the hospitality industry. Only five-star hotels can have such budgets. I was offered less than what I’d make in the US. Instead, I had an opportunity to make an impact in this industry. In San Francisco, there are a million restaurants and a million great chefs. I wouldn’t have the ability to do something ground-breaking there.”

Some professionals working in the field of art and culture don’t like being labelled as expats altogether – to some, the word can serve as a shorthand for white, rich and arrogant. In the real-estate world, the term ‘expat housing’ is shorthand for affluent and luxurious.

I was offered less than what I’d make in the US. Instead, I had an opportunity to make an impact in this industry - Alex Sanchez

It’s not just the brokers that see expats as an opportunity. For Clap Global, a Mumbai-based education start-up, the city’s floating expat population is a resource for a cultural exchange. The premise is simple: the company reaches out to foreigners visiting India and connects them to nearby schools, for guest sessions on their country and culture.

Co-founder Shirin Johari feels that children unconsciously tend to imbibe many stereotypes about foreign cultures as they grow up. These biases can later lead to prejudices. “As I befriended people in my 20s from around the world, I learnt to un-condition my mind. But why must children wait for as long as I did, to eradicate their biases?” she says.

Dutch national Marlies Bloemendaal, co-founder of a collaborative workspace in South Mumbai, doesn’t consider herself an expat. “I didn’t come here for the money and I don’t live in a bubble, I came here because I love this city. I’ve learnt everything here by being curious and streetwise.

“In fact, I now see many more young entrepreneurs who come down and start their own businesses, as opposed to typical corporate workers.”