“隐形”有毒石油漏入东海,亚洲渔业面临严重威胁

A Nearly Invisible Oil Spill Threatens Some of Asia’s Richest Fisheries

编辑:给力英语新闻 更新:2018年2月13日 作者:纽约时报(By STEVEN LEE MYERS, 赫海威)

一艘渔船靠近舟山的港口。伊朗油轮桑吉号在1月沉入中国东海,并造成十数年以来最严重的石油泄漏,威胁着重要的渔场。
一艘渔船靠近舟山的港口。伊朗油轮桑吉号在1月沉入中国东海,并造成十数年以来最严重的石油泄漏,威胁着重要的渔场。

ZHOUSHAN, China — A fiery collision that sank an Iranian tanker in the East China Sea a month ago has resulted in an environmental threat that experts say is unlike any before: an almost invisible type of petroleum has begun to contaminate some of the most important fishing grounds in Asia, from China to Japan and beyond.

中国舟山——一个月前,一起撞船起火爆炸事故导致一艘伊朗油轮在中国东海沉没,造成了专家所谓前所未有的环境威胁:从中国到日本甚至更远的地方,一种肉眼几乎看不见的石油已经开始污染亚洲一些最重要的渔场。

It is the largest oil spill in decades, but the disaster has unfolded outside the glare of international attention that big spills have previously attracted. That is because of its remote location on the high seas and also the type of petroleum involved: condensate, a toxic, liquid byproduct of natural gas production.

这是数十年来最严重的石油泄漏事件,但是这起已经徐徐展开的灾难并没有像过去的大型石油泄漏事件那样引发国际社会的关注。这是因为它在公海上的偏远位置,以及涉及的石油类型:凝析油,天然气生产过程中的一种有毒液体副产品。

Unlike the crude oil in better-known disasters like the Exxon Valdez and the Deepwater Horizon, condensate does not clump into black globules that can be easily spotted or produce heart-wrenching images of animals mired in muck. There’s no visible slick that can be pumped out. Experts said the only real solution is to let it evaporate or dissolve. Absorbed into the water, it will remain toxic for a time, though it will also disperse more quickly into the ocean than crude oil.

不同于更为人所知的灾难,例如埃克森—瓦尔迪兹号(Exxon Valdez)和深水地平线(Deepwater Horizon)事件中泄漏的原油,凝析油不会聚集成容易发现,或者产生动物陷入油污那样让人揪心画面的黑色小球。它也不会产生大片肉眼可见的浮油。专家表示,唯一有效的解决办法是让它蒸发或溶解。被吸收到水中后,它会在一段时间内保持毒性,但也会比原油更迅速地分散到海洋中去。

Experts say there has never been so large a spill of condensate; up to 111,000 metric tons has poured into the ocean. It has almost certainly already invaded an ecosystem that includes some of the world’s most bountiful fisheries off Zhoushan, the archipelago that rises where the Yangtze River flows into the East China Sea.

专家称,从未有过如此严重的凝析油泄漏事件:多达11.1万公吨漏入海洋,几乎可以肯定的是,它已经侵入了一个包含舟山——这个群岛位于长江入海口——附近一些全球鱼类资源最丰富的渔场的生态系统。

左:1月10日,桑吉号在中国东海冒出滚滚浓烟。右:六天后,在东海可以看到石油泄漏
左:1月10日,桑吉号在中国东海冒出滚滚浓烟。右:六天后,在东海可以看到石油泄漏

The area produced five million tons of seafood of up to four dozen species for China alone last year, according to Greenpeace, including crab, squid, yellow croaker, mackerel and a local favorite, hairtail. If projections are correct, the toxins could soon make their way into equally abundant Japanese fisheries.

据绿色和平组织(Greenpeace)称,该地区仅在去年就为中国生产了高达48种、共计500万吨的海鲜,其中包括螃蟹、鱿鱼、黄花鱼、鲭鱼和深受中国人欢迎的带鱼。如果预测无误,这些毒素很快就会进入资源同样丰富的日本渔场。

Exposure to condensate is extremely unhealthy to humans and potentially fatal. The effects of eating fish contaminated with it remain essentially untested, but experts strongly advise against doing so.

暴露于凝析油当中对人类极不健康,并可能致命。吃受其污染的鱼会有怎样的影响,目前基本上未经测试,但专家强烈建议不要这样做。

“This is an oil spill of a type we haven’t seen before,” said Paul Johnston, a scientist at Greenpeace Research Laboratories at the University of Exeter in England. “Working out the impact is actually a huge task — probably next to impossible.”

“我们从未见过这样的石油泄漏类型,”英国埃克塞特大学(University of Exeter)绿色和平调研室(Greenpeace Research Laboratories)的科学家保罗·约翰斯顿(Paul Johnston)说。“弄清楚它的影响真的是一项大工程——几乎不可能完成。”

For China, the disaster has become a test of its ambitions as a global and regional steward of the seas, especially at a time when it is reinforcing its territorial claims, including disputed territories with Japan in these waters. Given its proximity, China has taken the lead in investigating the disaster and monitoring the spill, but it has faced some criticism for what some see as a slow and inadequate response thus far.

对中国而言,这场灾难已经成为它作为全球和地区海洋管理者野心的考验,特别是该国正在加强领土主张,包括在这片海域与日本有争议的领土。考虑到距离上更接近,中国已率先开始调查灾情并监测泄漏情况,但也有人批评它反应缓慢,做得远远不够。

Officials in Beijing announced on Feb. 1 that samples of fish taken within four to five nautical miles of the sunken ship contained traces of petroleum hydrocarbons, suggesting possible condensate contamination; they pledged to expand the range of testing to 90 miles, and closely monitor fish coming into markets.

北京的官员在2月1日公布,在沉船四至五海里范围内捕获的鱼类样本检测到了石油烃,这表明可能出现了凝析油污染;他们承诺将测试范围扩大到90英里(约合145公里),并密切监测流入市场的鱼类。

舟山的渔民。官方已经下令禁止在附近水域打渔。
舟山的渔民。官方已经下令禁止在附近水域打渔。

The threat of contamination has raised anxiety in the ports that cling to the rugged coastlines of Zhoushan’s islands, though such fears are usually expressed with quiet resignation lest one offend the government.

污染的威胁在舟山群岛崎岖海岸线的港口引发了焦虑,尽管这种担忧通常表现为安静的顺从,以避免冒犯政府。

“The quality will go down because of the oil in the water,” Hai Tao, a fish wholesaler at the International Aquatic Product City in Putuo, a district on Zhoushan’s biggest island, said as he watched a ship unload hundreds of crates of mantis shrimp, a delicacy headed to restaurants across China.

“因为水里有油,鱼的品质会降低,”在舟山最大岛屿普陀岛的国际水产城工作的批发商陶海(音)说道,他看着一艘船卸下数百箱皮皮虾,这款美味将被送往中国各地的餐馆。

The spill began on the evening of Jan. 6, when the Sanchi, a Panamanian-flagged, Iranian-owned tanker, collided with a cargo ship in waters roughly 160 nautical miles east of Shanghai. The Sanchi exploded and burned for more than a week before sinking. All 32 crew members are presumed dead.

泄漏事故发生在1月6日晚上,当时,由伊朗人所有、悬挂巴拿马国旗的“桑吉号”(Sanchi)油轮与一艘货船在上海以东约160海里的海域相撞。在下沉之前,桑吉号发生爆炸并持续燃烧了一个多星期。所有32名船员被认为已遇难。

Katya Popova, a senior research scientist at the National Oceanography Center in England, said there had not been a sufficiently coordinated international operation, and that was exacerbating the scale of the disaster.

英国国家海洋学中心(National Oceanography Center)的资深研究科学家卡特娅·波波娃(Katya Popova)表示,目前还没有采取足够统一的国际行动,这加剧了这场灾难的规模。

The lack of visible devastation has almost certainly dampened public reaction that might have galvanized a more vigorous response.

几乎可以肯定的是,公众的平淡反应是由于没有看到太多灾难的画面,而激烈的反应本可能引发更积极的应对行动。

一名买家在舟山群岛上看鱼。人们担心,泄漏可能会威胁渔业。
一名买家在舟山群岛上看鱼。人们担心,泄漏可能会威胁渔业。

“A much larger-scale operation is needed,” she said. “It hasn’t been monitored. It’s a mystery.”

“需要更大规模的行动,”她说,“它还没有受到密切关注。这是个谜。”

In Beijing, officials have been eager to demonstrate that the government was doing everything possible first to respond to the disaster and then to protect the health of its economically and politically sensitive fishing industry, which employs 14 million people.

北京的官员们一直在急于证明,政府正在尽一切努力首先应对灾难,然后保护具有经济和政治敏感性的渔业的健康。中国的渔业从业人员达1400万。

They have issued regular statements and held briefings, showing video of efforts to clean up the condensate and to monitor the sunken wreck, which was located at a depth of 115 meters, or about 377 feet. It is believed to still be leaking condensate and other fuels.

他们定期发布声明,举行通报会,展示清理凝析油、监测沉船残骸的视频。沉船位于水下115米处。据信,它仍在泄漏凝析油等燃料。

Han Xu, deputy director of the fisheries administration bureau of the Ministry of Agriculture, told reporters at a news conference in Beijing late last month that the accident had “a certain impact on the density of fishery resources” in the area, but that the government did not yet know the extent of the threat.

上月底,中国农业部渔业渔政管理局副局长韩旭在北京召开的新闻发布会上向记者们表示,该事故对该地区“渔业资源的密度有一定的影响”,但尚不清楚威胁的范围。

“At present, the investigation and monitoring are still ongoing and we are awaiting results of investigations into pollution and successive fishery resource investigations,” he said.

“目前,调查和监测工作仍在进行之中,我们在等待污染调查以及后续的渔业资源调查的结果,”他说。

舟山港口的渔船。在中国有1400万人从事捕鱼业,这导致漏油事故成为敏感话题。
舟山港口的渔船。在中国有1400万人从事捕鱼业,这导致漏油事故成为敏感话题。

In the meantime, the authorities have ordered a ban on fishing in the areas affected.

与此同时,中国当局已下令禁止在受影响的地区捕鱼。

China’s Ministry of Transportation initially played down the possibility of a spill, then said 136,000 metric tons had been lost. Later, it revised the figure downward to 111,000 tons — still enough to make it the worst tanker spill at sea since 1991.

中国交通运输部起初淡化了泄漏的可能性,后来称损失了13.6万吨油。再后来,它又将这个数字修正为11.1万吨。不过这依然足以使它成为自1991年以来最严重的海上油轮泄漏事故。

The spill is already drifting east toward Japan, but winds and currents can be unpredictable. The contamination could even reach waters as far-off as Tokyo.

泄漏的石油已经在向东面的日本漂流,但风向和洋流不可预测。污染甚至可能远及东京附近水域。

The cause of the disaster remains a mystery. The Sanchi was nearing the end of its voyage to South Korea through one of the most heavily traversed parts of the world’s oceans when it collided with the CF Crystal, a bulk carrier flagged in Hong Kong that was delivering grain to China from the United States.

这场灾难的起因依然是个谜。当时,桑吉号油轮前往韩国的航程已接近尾声,正在穿过全球最繁忙的一个海域,这时,它与悬挂香港旗帜的散货船长峰水晶(CF Crystal)相撞。后者当时正从美国向中国运送谷物。

As the Sanchi erupted into flames, the Crystal managed to make harbor — and is now in one of Zhoushan’s many ports.

桑吉号爆炸燃烧之时,长峰水晶号设法进港停泊,现在它停泊在舟山众多港口中的一个。

On the Shengsi islands, the part of the Zhoushan archipelago that was closest to the accident, the spill could threaten an industry already strained by polluted runoff from the Yangtze and by overfishing.

离事故发生地点最近的是舟山群岛的嵊泗列岛。漏油事故可能会威胁那里的渔业,由于被污染的长江径流过度捕捞,那里已受到了严重影响。

At one village nestled in a harbor, three boats unloaded their final catches before the start this week of the Lunar New Year holidays. An astounding variety of fish were sorted dockside into plastic trays. Wu Zhihong, who with her husband owns one of the trawlers, said the catch over the last year had been an improvement over the year before.

在一个座落在海湾边的村庄里,三艘渔船正在卸下将于本周开始的农历新年假期前的最后一批渔获。在码头边,种类异常丰富的鱼类被分类放入不同的塑料托盘。其中一艘渔船属于吴志红(音)和她的丈夫。她说,过去一年里的捕捞量比之前一年有所提高。

Ms. Wu expressed hope that the damage from the spill would be limited, absorbed into a wider, forgiving ocean. “The sea is very big,” she said amid a cacophony of fishmongers who descended on the pier to bargain over the catch.

吴志红表示,她希望此次漏油事故只会造成有限的损失,希望漏油能被更广阔、宽容的海洋所吸收。“海很大,”她在码头鱼贩讨价还价的嘈杂声中说。

赫海威(Javier C. Hernández)是《纽约时报》驻京记者。

Steven Lee Myers自北京和舟山、赫海威自北京报道。

Olivia Mitchell Ryan自舟山、Zoe Mou自北京、Hisako Ueno自东京对本文有研究贡献。

欢迎在Twitter上关注本文作者Steven Lee Myers @stevenleemyers和赫海威 @HernandezJavier。

翻译:纽约时报中文网