默克尔赢得第四任期,但极右民粹派势力增强

编辑:给力英语新闻 更新:2017年9月25日 作者:美国之音(VOA News)

德国总理安吉拉·默克尔(Angela Merkel)在联邦大选后对“投票者调查” 的初步结果做出反应(2017年9月24日)
德国总理安吉拉·默克尔(Angela Merkel)在联邦大选后对“投票者调查” 的初步结果做出反应(2017年9月24日)Christian Democratic Union CDU party leader and German Chancellor Angela Merkel reacts on first exit polls in the German general election (Bundestagswahl) in Berlin, Sept. 24, 2017.

德国总理安吉拉·默克尔(Angela Merkel)在联邦大选中胜选连任,获得第四个任期。自从三个月前开始竞选,其结果似乎就不可避免。但是,她的执政党基督教民主联盟获得的选票比预测的要少,而德国的极右派民粹主义者势力激增,得票超过大多数民意调查者的预测。

对投票者的调查通常比较可靠,投票站关闭后不久就发布的调查显示,执政党基督教民主联盟及其姊妹党——巴伐利亚基督教社会联盟得到32.5%的选票,使默克尔获得第四任期,而二战后德国只有3位总理得到第四任期。

民意调查曾预期基督教民主联盟及巴伐利亚基督教社会联盟将赢得36%至39%的选票。

由于基民盟的票数少于预期,而有争议的右翼民粹主义政党“德国另类选择党”的表现好于预期,所以默克尔的胜利可以说是苦涩的。

默克尔在基民盟总部说:“我们为幸福和美好的德国而战。”不过,她承认面临“德国另类选择党形式的新挑战”,她还说:“我们希望赢回这个党的选民,所以我们要注意他们的担忧。”

德国另类选择党轻易跨越了在联邦议院中拥有席位所需的百分之五选票的门槛。有些人把德国另类选择党的崛起间接地归咎于默克尔,该党似乎曾经濒临灭亡,而默克尔2015年实行对中东难民的开放政策之后,该党败部复活了。

对投票者的调查数据显示,德国另类选择党得票占全国票数的13.4%,这是纳粹时代以来公开的民族主义者第一次进入德国议会。

德国另类选择党领导人彼得里发表推文说,德国经历了“无与伦比的政治地震”。在该党的总部,支持者喊道:“我们要收复这个国家。”

初步选举结果将在星期一上午公布。

Merkel Wins Historic Fourth Term But Far-right Populists Surge

Angela Merkel has won a fourth term as Germany’s Chancellor in a federal election whose outcome seemed inevitable since the start of campaigning three months ago. But her ruling Christian Democrats got a lower share of the vote than predicted and Germany’s far-right populists surged, securing a bigger vote than most pollsters forecast.

Normally reliable projections based on exit surveys released shortly after polling stations closed gave Merkel’s ruling Christian Democratic Union and its Bavarian sister party, the Christian Social Union, 32.5 percent share of the vote, putting her on course to become one of only three three postwar chancellors elected to a fourth term. Pollsters had expected the CDU/CSU to win between 36 to 39 percent of the vote.

With the lower CDU vote and a stronger showing than expected by Germany’s controversial far-right populist party Alternative for Germany, Merkel’s win is arguably bittersweet. "We fought for Germany that lives happily and well," Merkel said at the CDU headquarters. But she acknowledged "a new challenge in the form of the AfD," adding, "We would like to win back AfD voters so we will look into their concerns."

AfD easily cleared the five percent threshold needed to secure seats in the Bundestag. Merkel is blamed indirectly by some in Germany for the rise of the AfD, which until her 2015 open-door policy for war refugees from the Middle East appeared to be moribund.

Exit data suggested AfD grabbed 13.4 percent of the national vote, the first time openly nationalists have entered the German parliament since the Nazi era, marking a sharp departure for a country that has limited political speech and is wary of any dramatic expressions of nationalism.

AfD leader Frauke Petry tweeted that Germany has experienced an “incomparable political earthquake.” At the party’s headquarters, supporters chanted, “We are going to going to take this country back.” The exit data is considered highly accurate, but will be refined during the night with preliminary results announced in the early hours of Monday.

Merkel’s win can be seen as a personal triumph for her, despite the emergence of the AfD. She acknowledged Sunday night it had been "a difficult campaign."

Two years ago Merkel’s political position appeared much more precarious with the country turning against her immigration policy and resentment building up over her handling of the debt crisis in southern Europe and increasing social inequality in Germany.

Her poll ratings recovered as the refugee influx ebbed and in the wake of Donald Trump’s election. Some CDU insiders say the “Trump factor” helped Merkel, as did last year’s Brexit vote.

After the political disorder in London that’s followed Britain’s vote to leave the European Union and turmoil in the United States in Trump’s first months in office, Germans appeared to be in no mood to gamble, voting for things to remain as they are — stable and, for most Germans, affluent. The performance Sunday of Merkel's main center-left challengers, the Social Democrats, junior partners in the outgoing governing coalition, was worse than they had feared. With just 20 percent of the vote it was the party's worst post-war showing.

The AfD will now be Germany’s third largest parliamentary party and their performance will complicate Merkel’s decisions about who to form a coalition with to govern the country. Speaking to party members in Berlin, Social Democrat leader Martin Schulz ruled out forming a coalition with Merkel.

“Today puts an end to our cooperation with the CDU,” he said to cheers. In recent days Merkel had indicated she favored shaping a different coalition, if for no other reason than to avoid the AfD becoming the official opposition in the Bundestag.

Being designated the official opposition would give the AfD parliamentary privileges Germany’s other parties would prefer to deny it. Merkel will now start negotiations with the revived pro-market Free Democrats, who failed to secure any Bundestag seats in 2013 but made a comeback in Sunday’s election, and the Greens in an arrangement being nicknamed the "Jamaica Coalition" because of the parties’ colors reflecting the national flag of the Caribbean island.

But negotiations are likely to be tricky and could be drawn out for weeks, if not months. Both parties have recently formed coalitions with the CDU in two regional governments, but the Free Democrats do not see eye to eye with the Greens on national issues, particularly immigration policy and on the European Union.

The Free Democrats are opposed to greater EU political integration and centralization, something Merkel has endorsed and so, too, the Greens. Michael Fuchs, an adviser to Angela Merkel, said Sunday night that the CDU wasn’t in the mood for partying.

“Losing a significant share of the vote, eight percent, is not a reason for holding a party.” On the AfD’s performance he said: “this is not at all what we wanted. But to say everyone in the AfD is a Nazi is not correct, some are conservatives, and we could see the party split.” He still held the possibility of Merkel forming a coalition government with the Social Democrats, saying that to form one with the Free Democrats and the Greens will be very difficult.