美国国务院承认双性人意识日

编辑:给力英语新闻 更新:2017年10月27日 作者:美国之音赛内(Cindy Saine)

2016年7月20, 科罗拉多州柯林斯堡的达纳·兹伊姆在丹佛的美国联邦法庭外谈自己的案情。双性人兹伊姆因为美国护照申请表的性别选项只能填写男或女而无法得到护照,为此把美国国务院告上法庭。
2016年7月20, 科罗拉多州柯林斯堡的达纳·兹伊姆在丹佛的美国联邦法庭外谈自己的案情。双性人兹伊姆因为美国护照申请表的性别选项只能填写男或女而无法得到护照,为此把美国国务院告上法庭。

美国国务院星期四承认“双性人意识日”,并说,美国与世界各地的双性人团结站在一起。国务院发表这项声明之际,正因同一问题被告上法庭。

国务院发言人希瑟·诺尔特(Heather Nauert)说:“我们认识到双性人因为他们的性别特征而面临暴力、歧视、骚扰和迫害。在很小的时候,双性人经常在未经自愿或知情许可的情况下被强制做医疗手术。这些干预措施破坏了他们的身体完整性和自由生活的能力。“

国务院再次表示,美国有坚定的承诺,要在全世界推动让所有的人都能有尊严地自由和平等地表达自我,无论其性别特征如何。

“双性人”泛指某人生下来时具有不同于典型男女的生殖或性器官的多种情况。

在国务院星期四发表这项声明的同时,国务院还面临非营利的“兰布达法律”( Lambda Legal)组织代表美国双性人达纳·兹伊姆(Dana Zzyym)在联邦法庭提起的歧视诉讼。

兹伊姆是美国海军退伍军人。由于美国护照申请表上的性别选项只有男或女,兹伊姆无法得到护照。

“兰布达法律”组织高级律师保罗·卡斯蒂洛在10月10日发布的新闻稿中说:“护照本质上就是一个准确反映本人的身份证,而达纳为此奋斗了几乎三年。”

“兰布达法律”组织说,很多双性人在表明身份时,都把自己的性别定为男或者女,但有些人,比如兹伊姆,不这样做。兹伊姆使用“他们”这样的中性人称代词来自称,出生时性别特征不明。

“兰布达法律”组织介绍了兹伊姆经历的磨难。

“达纳出生后不久,他们的父母和医生决定把他们作为一个男孩抚养。因此,达纳经历了好几次不可逆转的、痛苦的和无医疗必要的手术,而这些手术还没有效,给达纳造成了心理创伤,并留下了严重的伤疤。”

兹伊姆后来开始教育公众双性人面临的问题,并且申请护照去墨西哥参加一次研讨会,但申请被拒。

2015年10月,“兰布达法律”组织在科罗拉多区的美国联邦地区法院提起诉讼,状告美国国务院违反美国宪法有关“正当程序”和“平等保护”的条款。

法庭在2016年做出了有利于兹伊姆的裁决。但是这起案件又被重新启动,这是因为,美国国务院仍然拒绝在护照申请表上设男女之外的性别选项。

美国之音请美国国务院对这起官司做出评论。国务院回答说:“作为政策,我们不能就未决诉讼发表评论。”

“兰布达法律”组织星期四在推特上说,美国国务院发表声明承认“双性人意识日”是虚伪的,并说,国务院应当“采纳自己的建议,并帮助结束针对双性人的暴力、歧视、骚扰和迫害。”

US State Department Recognizes Intersex Awareness Day

The State Department on Thursday recognized Intersex Awareness Day and said the United States stands in solidarity with intersex persons around the world. The statement comes as the department faces a discrimination lawsuit on the issue.

"We recognize that intersex persons face violence, discrimination, harassment, and persecution on account of their sex characteristics," State Department spokesperson Heather Nauert said. "At a young age, intersex persons routinely face forced medical surgeries without free or informed consent. These interventions jeopardize their physical integrity and ability to live freely."

The State Department said it reaffirms its strong commitment to promoting a world where all persons can freely and equally express themselves with dignity, regardless of sex characteristics.

"Intersex" is a general term used for a variety of conditions in which a person is born with a reproductive or sexual anatomy that doesn't fit the typical definitions of male or female.

The statement Thursday comes as the department faces a federal discrimination lawsuit from nonprofit Lambda Legal group on behalf of intersex American and U.S. navy veteran, Dana Zzyym.

Zzyym was denied a U.S. passport because only two choices were available for gender marker on the passport application form, either male or female.

"Dana has been fighting for almost three years for an essential identity document that accurately reflects who they are," Lambda Legal Senior Attorney Paul Castillo said in an October 10 press release. "The U.S. District Court ordered the State Department to reconsider its binary-only gender policy barring use of a third gender marker on U.S. passports."

Lambda Legal says many intersex people identify as male or female, but some, like Zzyym, do not. Zzyym uses the gender-neutral pronouns "they," "them" and "their" and was born with ambiguous sex characteristics.

Lambda Legal outlined Zzyym's struggle.

"Shortly after Dana's birth, their parents and doctor decided to raise them as a boy. As a result, Dana underwent several irreversible, painful and medically unnecessary surgeries that didn't work, traumatized Dana and left them with severe scarring."

Later in life, Zzymm began educating the public about issues facing intersex people and applied for a passport to travel to a forum in Mexico, but the application was denied.

In October 2015, Lambda Legal filed a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the District of Colorado against the U.S. State Department for violating the Due Process and Equal Protection clauses of the U.S. Constitution.

The court issued a ruling in favor of Zzyym in November of 2016. However, the case has been reopened because the State Department continues to refuse a gender marker that is neither male nor female on its passport applications.

Asked to comment on the lawsuit, the State Department told VOA: "As a matter of policy, we are unable to comment on pending litigation."

In tweets Thursday, Lambda Legal called the State Department statement recognizing Intersex Awareness Day hypocritical and said the department should "take its own advice & help end violence, discrimination, harassment, persecution of intersex people."