加泰罗尼亚议会投票脱离西班牙而独立

编辑:给力英语新闻 更新:2017年10月28日 作者:美国之音阿罗斯特吉(Martin Arostegui)

西班牙首相拉霍伊在首相府召开的新闻发布会上讲话 (2017年10月21日)
西班牙首相拉霍伊在首相府召开的新闻发布会上讲话 (2017年10月21日)

加泰罗尼亚地区议会星期五投票批准了召开宪法大会成立主权共和国的决议,等于是投票决定从西班牙独立。完成批准工作之后,在场的议员们热烈鼓掌、拥抱并高唱加泰罗尼亚颂歌。

从西班牙分离的这项决议案是由加泰罗尼亚自治区主席卡莱斯·普伊格德蒙特领导的地区联盟中更为激进的分离主义派别起草并提交的。独立决议案表决中,70名议员支持独立,10名反对,2名弃权。

在加泰罗尼亚议会中占据不到一半议席的西班牙执政的中右政党人民党和主流反对党社会党,抵制了这次表决会议。

星期五加泰议会的决议结束了就10月1日举行的独立公决以来加泰独立问题的不确定性。那次公决的选民投票率为百分之50,赞成独立的票数为百分之90。

卡莱斯·普伊格德蒙特因为担心可能导致中央政府的直接接管治理,因此从宣布独立的立场上后撤。西班牙中央政府已经采取行动接管了加泰地区的财政、治安以及关键的基础设施和行政机构,其中包括公共资助的电视和广播媒体。

一位西班牙议会前资深议员告诉美国之音说,“卡莱斯·普伊格德蒙特在宣布独立之前,让议会先就独立问题进行表决的做法很狡猾,这给了他某种法律掩护”。

卡莱斯·普伊格德蒙特可能因为煽动叛乱面临25年的刑期。西班牙中央政府已经监禁了两位分离运动领导人并正在对被控使用公共资源支持独立诉求的其他官员进行起诉。

在西班牙参议院投票表决对加泰地区进行直接治理之后,西班牙政府立即发布公告,宣布卡莱斯·普伊格德蒙特和他的副主席容克拉斯不再是加泰罗尼亚自治区政府的领导人。

美国之音采访的西班牙官方人士表示,拉霍伊首相正准备任命一位来自加泰地区的紧密助手领导一个由中央政府授权管理的加泰地区政府,他确定12月21日为加泰地区选举的日期。 西班牙参议院对加泰地区的独立措施做出的回应是,启动西班牙宪法第155条,剥夺加泰罗尼亚地区政府的权力,由中央政府对该地区进行接管。 西班牙首相拉霍伊呼吁国家保持冷静,并在星期五晚间召集一次特别内阁会议。

卡莱斯·普伊格德蒙特和加泰地区政府其他成员、议员和数百名市镇长一起,集聚在加泰议会大楼的台阶上,向聚集在外面的成千上万支持者发表讲话,高呼“自由”。 他在简短的演说中表示,“我们自己现在必须组建我们自己的政治构架和自己的社会”。 反对派社会党领导人派德罗·桑切斯星期五对加泰独立举措做出回应时,誓言“我党的进步旗帜将永远不会加入到那些寻求把我们国家带入深渊的人当中”。

即使传统上民族主义情绪强烈的巴斯克地区的当局也一直拒绝支持加泰的独立事业。虽然加泰和巴斯克这两个地区的激进分离主义力量在不断加强联系。

世界的反应

联合国发言人敦促所有各方“在西班牙宪法的框架下,通过建立政治和法律渠道来寻求问题的解决”。

支持马德里对加泰危机立场的欧洲理事会主席图斯克在推特上表示,他希望“西班牙政府支持讨论,而不是武力”。

有西班牙作为成员国的北约在一份声明中说,“加泰罗尼亚问题是一个西班牙国内问题,应当在西班牙宪法的秩序内得到解决”。

马德里保持国家统一的努力也继续得到美国政府的支持。美国国务院发言人诺尔特在一份声明中表示,“美国支持西班牙政府采取符合宪法的措施保持西班牙的强大和统一”。

俄罗斯卷入 但是对加泰独立的一些国际支持看来来自于俄罗斯,俄罗斯对加泰分离主义人士给予某种承认,对以往美国和欧盟支持前苏联共和国分裂以及科索沃具有争议的独立做出对等的回应。

俄罗斯总统普京上周在索契召开的一次国际论坛会议上表示,“像西班牙这样成熟繁荣的国家,通过支持科索沃独立把自己脆弱的稳定置于危险境地”。

一位要求不透露姓名的西班牙资深外交官对美国之音表示,“不可否认普京对西班牙的不稳定和巴尔干化感兴趣”。 俄罗斯支持下分离出来的南奥塞梯事实上的外长、据报与克里姆林宫关系密切的迪米特里·梅多耶夫本周访问了加泰罗尼亚,在巴塞罗那建立了一处“利益办事处”,以促进“在人道主义和文化议题方面的双边关系”。 南奥塞梯在10月1日加泰独立全民公决之后,承诺支持“加泰罗尼亚”的主权。

诸如委内瑞拉和朝鲜在内的一些流氓政权也表示对加泰罗尼亚分离主义的支持。

Catalonia Parliament Votes for Independence from Spain

The Catalan regional parliament voted for independence from Spain Friday by approving a resolution to convene a constitutional assembly to form a sovereign republic. The move was accompanied by applause and embraces between lawmakers present, who sang the Catalan anthem.

The resolution to secede from Spain was drafted and presented by the more radical separatist factions of the regional coalition headed by Catalonia President Carles Puigdemont, and it passed by 70 votes in favor, 10 against and 2 blank votes.

Spain's ruling center-right Popular Party and the mainstream opposition socialists, who hold just under half the seats in the Catalan parliament, boycotted the session.

Waiting game

Friday’s resolution by the Catalan regional parliament ends a period of uncertainty over Catalan independence that has prevailed since an Oct. 1 referendum on independence that won 90 percent of the vote in a 50 percent voter turnout.

Puigdemont has held back from declaring independence for fear of triggering direct rule by the central government, which has been moving to take over the region's finances, police services, and key infrastructure and administrative bodies, including publicly financed TV and broadcast media.

“It was very astute on the part of Puigdemont to let parliament vote on independence resolution prior to declaring it, as it gives him certain legal cover,” a former senior member of the Spanish parliament told VOA.

Puigdemont could face a 25-year prison sentence for sedition. The central government already has jailed two separatist leaders and is prosecuting other officials accused of using public resources to support the independence bid.

Immediately following the Spanish senate vote to impose direct rule on Catalonia, the government issued an official bulletin announcing that Puigdemont and his Vice President Orio Junqueras had ceased to be the heads of the Catalonian regional government.

Rajoy reportedly set to move

Spanish official sources consulted by VOA say Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy is preparing to appoint a close aide of Catalan origin to head a centrally administered regional government, and he has set Dec. 21 as the date for regional Catalan elections.

Spain’s Senate responded to Catalonia’s independence move by approving the application of constitutional article 155, which officially authorizes the central government to suspend Catalan authorities and take over the region’s administration.

“The turn of events ... has left us with no recourse but the application of constitutional prerogatives to reinstitute the legal order in Catalonia,” said Spain’s senate president.

Rajoy appealed for national “calm” and called together a special cabinet meeting for later Friday.

“The government will take whatever measures are necessary. We will not allow a group of people to liquidate the country.” he told reporters.

Puigdemont, accompanied by other members of the Catalan regional government, lawmakers and hundreds of mayors, crowded onto the steps of the parliament building to address thousands of supporters gathering outside, shouting “liberty.”

In a short speech, he said, “We ourselves must now form our own structures and our own society.”

Opposition leader supports Spain

Socialist opposition leader Pedro Sanchez reacted to the Catalan independence move Friday by pledging “my party’s progressive flag will never join those seeking to take our country over the abyss.”

Even regional authorities in the traditionally nationalistic Basque region have been reluctant to support the Catalan cause, despite growing relations between radical separatists in both regions.

World reaction

The United Nations spokesperson urged all sides “to seek solutions with in the framework of the Spanish constitution and through established political and legal channels.”

The European Union Council President Donald Tusk, who has supported Madrid’s approach to the crisis, said on Twitter he hoped “the Spanish government favors force of argument, not argument of force.”

NATO, of which Spain is a member, said in a statement, “The Catalonia issue is a domestic matter which should be resolved within Spain's constitutional order.”

Madrid's efforts to keep the country united also has the continued support of the U.S. government. U.S. State Department spokeswoman Heather Nauert said in a statement, “… the United States supports the Spanish government's constitutional measures to keep Spain strong and united.”

Russian involvement

Some international support for Catalan independence, however, seems to be coming from Russia, which is giving some recognition to Catalan separatists as reciprocal action for past U.S. and European backing to breakaway former Soviet republics and the controversial independence of Kosovo.

“By backing the independence of Kosovo, formed and prosperous countries such as Spain put at risk their own fragile stability,” Russian President Vladimir Putin said last week at an international forum in Sochi.

“It's undeniable that Putin is interested in the destabilization and balkanization of Spain,” a senior Spanish diplomat told VOA, asking that his name not be used.

The de facto foreign minister of the Russian supported breakaway state of South Osetia, Dimitri Medoev, who is reported to be close to the Kremlin, visited Catalonia this week to set up an “interests office” in Barcelona to promote “bilateral relations in humanitarian and cultural issues.”

South Osetia pledged support for the “sovereignty of Catalonia” following the Oct. 1 referendum.

Rogue states such as Venezuela and North Korea also have expressed support for Catalonian secessionism.