房地产大亨许家印取代王健林成中国新首富

编辑:给力英语新闻 更新:2017年10月14日 作者:黄瑞黎(By SUI-LEE WEE)

2016年,许家印在北京。许是恒大集团背后的企业家,他是中国最强劲的地产开发商之一,根据一项调查,他已经成为该国最富有的人之一。
2016年,许家印在北京。许是恒大集团背后的企业家,他是中国最强劲的地产开发商之一,根据一项调查,他已经成为该国最富有的人之一。

北京——中国新的数字巨头正在崛起。国内一家最雄心勃勃地在全球收购的商人的地位正在下滑。而一个喜欢大量举债的房地产大亨则名列榜首。

据跟踪中国财富状况的胡润百富榜周四公布的一项调查,中国最声势浩大的房地产开发商之一、恒大集团背后的企业家许家印已成为中国最富有的人。

新排名描绘了一个由消费驱动、也对房地产有极大胃口的充满活力的经济宏观图景。消费和房地产都在帮助推动经济增长,而中国经济的传统引擎——制造业和政府项目的巨额支出——已开始失去动力。

“我们富豪榜上的前十名在过去一年的进步是十年来最快的,”胡润百富董事长胡润(Rupert Hoogewerf)说。

不过,周四公布的这份名单也指出了中国的一些弱点。

中国当局正在努力遏制不断飙升的房价。房价上涨让有房者的财富增加,但对许多人来说房子已变得越来越买不起。中国经济活动的很大部分仍由债务推动。

胡润把中国恒大集团董事长兼创始人许家印的财富估值为2900亿元,很大程度上是因为他的公司在香港上市的股票在过去一年中涨了五倍。尽管该公司去年的债务负担随着公司的扩张大幅增长,导致人们对恒大的债务负担有所担忧,但该公司股票仍出现大涨。恒大没有回复记者的置评请求。

许家印取代了在房地产业和娱乐业呼风唤雨的王健林成为中国首富。王健林在收购了AMC连锁影院和传奇娱乐后,曾是中国好莱坞野心的代表人物。

近来,王健林的命运却象征着中国对自己的全球生产者身份新出现的质疑。今年6月,一名银行业资深监管者警告说,中国一些最大的企业可能会对国有银行构成系统性风险,反映了北京对不断攀升的债务水平可能会破坏中国经济稳定的担忧。

该月,王健林剥离了公司名下的大部分主题公园和酒店股份。他还让公司从香港退市,而去年香港股市上涨了19%。“如果他没有从香港退市的话,他就不会在待在现在的位置上了,”胡润说。

胡润说,王健林及其家族的净资产去年下降了28%,总财富为1550亿元。万达拒绝对此文置评。

万达被认为是中国的“灰犀牛”之一,这种说法的意思是它们代表着对中国经济巨大、却遭到忽视的潜在威胁。据胡润百富榜,其他灰犀牛企业的领导人中,复星集团董事长郭广昌的财富上涨了40%,达到625亿元。海航集团的联合创始人兼董事局联席主席陈峰今年以150亿元的净资产首次上榜。

中国的科技巨头——腾讯的马化腾和阿里巴巴的马云——在百富榜上分别排名第二和第三。胡润估计马化腾的财富为2500亿元。作为中国财富榜上的第二名,马化腾超过了马云。马云的净资产为2000亿元,下降了2%,这是因为他卖掉了他持有的阿里名下的金融子公司蚂蚁金服的股份。

百富榜反映出越来越多的资金正在流向腾讯和蚂蚁金服这样的公司,因为投资者押注更多的用户将不再使用现金,这两个互联网巨头分别运营微信和支付宝。

阿里巴巴和蚂蚁金服的股东中有43名上了百富榜。阿里巴巴目前的市值为4730亿美元,腾讯的市值为4280亿美元。相比之下,埃克森美孚的估值约为3500亿美元。

富豪榜上的一些名字属于中国权力最大的一些机构。名单上的三位企业家——玉米大亨李登海、酒业巨头吴少勋,以及靠牛奶发财的潘刚——都是共产党第十九次全国代表大会的代表,这是每五年一次的政治会议,将于本月晚些时候召开,会议将决定中国的新领导人。

胡润曾在今年3月表示,中国全国人大和政协的最富有的代表的财富总额已达到5000亿美元,略低于瑞典的年度经济产值。

百富榜前10名中的新成员包括房地产开发商碧桂园的杨惠妍、快递公司顺丰的王卫,以及汽车制造商浙江吉利控股集团的李书福。

百富榜上的许多企业家都有白手起家的背景,这是这个世界第二大经济体在10年时间里迅速崛起的缩影。据胡润称,中国现在有全球亿万富翁中的36%。中国有647位以美元计算的亿万富翁,高出去年的594位。而在2003年,中国一位都没有。

黄瑞黎(Sui-Lee Wee)是《纽约时报》驻京记者。

Zhang Tiantian对本文有研究贡献。

翻译:Cindy Hao

Tech and Real Estate Lift the Fortunes of China’s Richest

BEIJING — China’s new digital barons are rising. One of its most ambitious global deal makers is falling. And a property mogul who likes to borrow heavily is on top.

Xu Jiayin — an entrepreneur behind China Evergrande Group, one of the country’s most aggressive property developers — has become the country’s richest person, according to a survey released on Thursday by The Hurun Report, which tracks wealth in the country.

The results paint a broad picture of a dynamic economy fueled by consumption as well as a voracious appetite for real estate. Both are helping to fuel growth in a country where the traditional engines of manufacturing and big spending on government projects are beginning to lose power.

“The top 10 on our rich list had a year like they’ve never had for 10 years,” said Rupert Hoogewerf, Hurun’s chairman.

Still, the list released Thursday also points out some of China’s weaknesses.

The Chinese authorities are struggling to tame surging property prices, which have added to the wealth of homeowners but made housing increasingly unaffordable for many. Much of China’s economic activity continues to be fueled by debt.

Hurun valued the wealth of Mr. Xu, chairman and founder of China Evergrande, at $43 billion, largely because of his firm’s Hong Kong-listed shares, which have soared five times in the past year. The surge has come despite worries about Evergrande’s debt load, which grew sharply last year as the company expanded. Evergrande did not respond to requests for comment.

Mr. Xu replaced Wang Jianlin, a property and entertainment power broker, as China’s richest person. Mr. Wang had become the poster boy for China’s Hollywood ambitions after his acquisition of the AMC theater chain and Legendary Entertainment.

More recently, Mr. Wang’s fortunes have symbolized China’s new skepticism over its global makers. In June, a senior banking regulator warned that some of the country’s biggest companies could pose a systemic risk to state banks, reflecting Beijing’s anxiety that mounting debt levels could destabilize the Chinese economy.

That month, Mr. Wang divested much of its theme park and hotel holdings. He also delisted one of his companies from Hong Kong, where shares have risen 19 percent in the past year. “Had he not delisted from Hong Kong, he wouldn’t be in the position that he would be now,” Mr. Hoogewerf said.

Hurun said he and his family’s net worth fell 28 percent to $23 billion in the last year. Wanda declined to comment.

Wanda is considered one of China’s gray rhinos, so named because they represent large but ignored potential threats to the country’s economy. Among the leaders of the other gray rhinos, Guo Guangchang, the chairman of the financial conglomerate Fosun, saw his wealth rise 40 percent to $9.3 billion, according to Hurun. Chen Feng, the co-founder and co-chairman of HNA Group, was a new addition to the survey, with a net worth of about $2.3 billion.

China’s tech tycoons — Pony Ma of Tencent and Jack Ma of Alibaba — were the second- and third-richest in the survey. Hurun valued Pony Ma’s fortune at $37 billion. As No. 2 on the Chinese wealth list, he succeeds Jack Ma, whose net worth fell 2 percent to $30 billion because he sold down his stake in his firm’s financial affiliate, Ant Financial.

The survey reflects a surge of money going into companies like Tencent and Ant Financial — the internet giants that run WeChat and Alipay — as investors bet on more users going cashless.

Alibaba and Ant Financial have 43 shareholders who made the list. Alibaba’s market cap is now $473 billion, while Tencent’s is at $428 billion. In contrast, Exxon Mobil is valued around $350 billion.

Some names on the rich list belong to some of China’s most powerful bodies. Three of the entrepreneurs on the list — Li Denghai, a corn tycoon; Wu Shaoxun, an alcohol magnate; and Pan Gang, who made his fortune in milk — will be delegates to the 19th Communist Party Congress, a once-in-five-years political meeting that will convene later this month to pick a new slate of Chinese leaders.

In March, Hurun said the combined fortune of the wealthiest members of the country’s Parliament and its advisory body amounts to $500 billion, just below the annual economic output of Sweden.

New additions to the list’s top 10 include Yang Huiyan of the property developer Country Garden, Wang Wei of the delivery company SF Express and Li Shufu of the carmaker Zhejiang Geely Holding Group.

Many of the entrepreneurs featured in the survey have rags-to-riches backgrounds that epitomize the sharp ascent of the world’s second-largest economy in the span of a decade. According to Hurun, China now accounts for 36 percent of the world’s billionaires. It has 647 billionaires in American dollar terms, up from 594 the year before. In 2003, there were none.