重兵集结基尔库克 伊库两军剑拔弩张

编辑:给力英语新闻 更新:2017年10月14日 作者:美国之音希瑟·默多克(Heather Murdock)

部署在基尔库克以南的巴希尔村的伊拉克坦克。(2017年10月13日)
部署在基尔库克以南的巴希尔村的伊拉克坦克。(2017年10月13日)The headquarters of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in Paris

库尔德敢死军在伊拉克有争议的石油城基尔库克部署了数以千计的士兵,虽然伊拉克政府宣布不会立即发动进攻,但是,当地居民还是忐忑不安,担心政府军会向城市进逼。

基尔库克的当地记者达拉·萨伊德说:“一些平民拿着枪走上街头。人们紧张不安。”基尔库克目前由库尔德当局控制,但巴格达的伊拉克中央政府和位于埃尔比勒的库尔德地区领导人都声称这座城市是他们的。

库尔德领导人说,包括“人民动员组织”在内的伊拉克武装已经集结在基尔库克城市及其油田和机场附近的伊拉克控制区。“人民动员组织”是一支庞大的武装力量,主要由什叶派民兵团体组成。

伊拉克领导人说,他们没有攻城计划,只是在已经由伊拉克控制的地区宣示权威而已。

伊拉克总理阿巴迪星期五发推说:“在任何地方都不会对我们的公民发动战争。”

不过,按照库尔德敢死军上校赫姆·哈桑·萨利赫的说法,如果伊拉克部队进入库尔德人控制区,敢死军将视其为侵略行为。萨利赫星期五在自己的基地接受了电话采访。他说:“如果他们未经许就过来,那绝对就是战争迹象。”

在打击“伊斯兰国”激进分子的战斗中,伊拉克军队和库尔德敢死军一直是盟友。美国领导的联盟表示过,他们担心巴格达和埃尔比勒之间的纠纷会影响打击“伊斯兰国”的战斗。但是一些军人说,双方会通过谈判外交解决纠纷的,眼下的对峙可能只是在谈判之前摆个架势。

星期五,在西安巴尔省参加打击“伊斯兰国”行动的伊拉克特种部队少校阿萨德·阿萨迪说:“不会打仗的。这是个政治问题,将会对话解决。”

在卡齐尔省守卫着库尔德斯坦地区边界的敢死军上尉塔赫尔·阿齐兹也认为,谈判解决问题对所有方面来说都是最佳选择。不过,他说,如果没有国际介入,冲突可能无法避免,不管伊拉克中央政府说什么。

阿齐兹解释说,“‘人民党员组织’领导人可能会下达跟中央领导人不一样的命令。”

基地纠纷 矛盾加剧

伊拉克军队说,他们占领了基尔库克地区的一处敢死军基地,但这是“联邦军队的正常进驻”,而不是战争行为。敢死军领导人说,为了缓解紧张局势,他们星期五早晨离开了那处基地。敢死军上校萨利赫说,那是两年半前他们打败“伊斯兰国”激进分子时的一个临时阵地。

“我们希望撤退,这样就显得不那么具有威胁性,给他们以空间,”他解释说,“但是‘人民动员组织’趁机逼进。”他说,截止到星期五下午,城市仍保持平静,“但我们的耐心不是无限度的。”

伊拉克库尔德地区实行半自治,维持自己的边界超过了25年,伊拉克军队只有在得到库尔德当局允许的情况下才能进驻。9月末,库尔德选民不顾巴格达和国际社会的反对,以超过92%的比例通过了独立公投。从那以后,库尔德地区变得日益孤立,国际航班停飞,各方还实施了一些制裁措施。

伊拉克陆军一支技术部队星期五发表声明说,“我军有权利进入伊拉克的任何省份,”但是到目前为止没有进入库尔德控制区。

阿巴迪总理星期五下午发推说:“我们的武装部队不能也不会袭击我们的公民,不管是阿拉伯人还是库尔德人。传播假新闻者怀有不良企图。”

Iraq on Edge as Kurdish, Iraqi Forces Face-off in Kirkuk

Thousands of Kurdish Peshmerga forces have deployed in Iraq's disputed oil city of Kirkuk and local residents are on edge, fearing a military advance despite Iraqi announcements that an attack is not imminent.

“Some civilians are out on the streets with their guns,” said Dara Saieed, a local journalist in Kirkuk, which is currently controlled by Kurdish authorities but claimed by both Iraq's central government in Baghdad and regional Kurdish leadership based in the city of Irbil. “People are nervous.”

Kurdish leaders say Iraqi forces, including Popular Mobilization Units (PMU), a massive fighting force primarily made up of former Shia militia groups, have gathered in Iraqi-controlled areas near the city of Kirkuk and its oil fields and airport.

Iraqi leaders say they have no plan to attack the city and they are simply asserting authority they already have over the region.

“There will be no war on our citizens anywhere,” tweeted Iraqi Prime Minister Haidar al-Abadi on Friday.

However, if Iraqi forces enter Kurdish-controlled territories, Peshmerga will consider it an act of aggression, according to Peshmerga Colonel Hemn Hassan Salih. “If they come in without permission, it is sign of war, nothing else,” he said in a phone interview from his base in Kirkuk on Friday.

Iraqi and Kurdish Peshmerga forces have been fighting as allies against Islamic State militants, and the U.S.-lead coalition has said it fears disputes between Baghdad and Irbil could distract from the fight. But some soldiers say the stand-off could simply be posturing ahead of negotiations for a diplomatic solution.

“There won’t be a battle,” said Iraqi Special Forces Major Assad al-Assady while on a mission to fight IS in West Anbar Province on Friday. “This is a political problem and it will be solved with dialogue.”

Negotiations would be the best solution for all sides, agreed Peshmerga Captain Taher Aziz, while manning a Kurdistan Region border in Khazir province. But without international involvement, he said, conflict may be inevitable, no matter what Iraq’s central leadership in Baghdad says.

“The PMU leadership may give orders that are not the same as the ones coming from the central leadership,” Aziz explained.

Tensions mount amid base dispute

The Iraqi military said it has taken one Peshmerga base in the Kirkuk area but the movement is “a normal entry of federal forces,” not an act of war.

Peshmerga leaders say they left the base to ease tensions early Friday morning. It was a temporary fighting position against Islamic State militants they had defeated two-and-half years ago, according to Peshmerga Colonel Salih.

“We wanted to pull back to appear less threatening and give them space,” he explained, “But the PMUs took advantage and closed in.” As of Friday afternoon, he said, the city remained calm, adding, “but we will not be patient forever.”

As a semi-autonomous region, Iraq's Kurdish region has maintained its own borders for more than 25 years, with Iraqi forces only entering with permission of Kurdish authorities. In late September, Kurdish voters passed an independence referendum by more than 92 percent over the objections of Baghdad and the international community. Since then the region has become increasingly isolated, with international flights grounded and other sanctions imposed.

An Iraqi army technical team released a statement on Friday saying, “Our forces have the right to enter any province in Iraq,” but have thus far not crossed into Kurdish-controlled territory.