蒂勒森强调深化对印度关系 点名批评中国

编辑:给力英语新闻 更新:2017年10月20日 作者:美国之音(VOA News)

美国国务卿蒂勒森在华盛顿智库国际战略与研究中心发表外交政策讲话
美国国务卿蒂勒森在华盛顿智库国际战略与研究中心发表外交政策讲话

美国国务卿蒂勒森少有地发表美国主要外交政策的讲话,阐述川普行政当局的南亚政策,加强同印度的关系,以平衡中国在印度洋-太平洋的影响。

蒂勒森在华盛顿的国际战略研究中心座无虚席的会场发表讲话,展望美国和印度今后100年的密切关系。

蒂勒森说:“川普总统和莫迪总理比他们所有的前任都更致力于打造广泛的伙伴关系,这不仅有利于我们两个民主大国,而且有利于其他促进和平与稳定的其他主权国家。”

蒂勒森说,美国和印度就像书档一样,在世界的两端保持稳定,两国都致力于法治、航行自由、普世价值观以及自由贸易。蒂勒森说,川普政府决心大力深化美国与印度的合作,他还宣布将于下周访问新德里。

亚洲问题专家库格尔曼说,可以预见到蒂勒森的重点在防卫与安全合作,但是他感到有些意外的是蒂勒森在讲话一开始就详细阐述了经济伙伴关系。经济合作一直落后与防卫合作,我们因此可以解读为这是要把关系扩大到超出已司空见惯的防卫和安全合作。

蒂勒森提到中国时则更为尖锐。他说:“中国在南中国海的挑衅行为对美国和印度都代表的国际法与准则构成直接的挑战。美国寻求与中国发展建设性的关系,但是当中国试图颠覆邻国的主权并使美国及其朋友处于不利位置时,我们不会从中国对基于规则秩序的挑战中退缩。”

中国驻美国大使馆星期三对蒂勒森的讲话做出反应。中国大使馆在提供给美国之音的一份声明中说:“中国对国际法治做出贡献并予以捍卫,谋求加强以联合国为中心的国际合作。我们完全致力于和世界其他国家一道打造一个公平和公正的国际秩序,以双赢的合作为尽可能多的人民带来最大的好处。例如,我们提出了目的是促进共同发展的一代一路倡议,并已赢得了全球很多国家的支持和参与。”

库格尔曼说,美国对印度的政策过去15年来始终如一,但是他说,蒂勒森阐述的外交政策的不同之处在于他明显意在中国。库格尔曼说:“奥巴马政府赞同,美印对中国的担心是两国走到一起的一个主要战略因素。不过,奥巴马政府在美印关系中选择不公开指明中国,不挑明中国因素是两国合作的共同点。奥巴马的白宫与北京打交道时很吃力,但是它不想得罪中国。川普政府则倾向于不那么谨小慎微。”

国务院一位资深发言人星期三晚上对记者说,蒂勒森的讲话基于国务院、白宫和国家安全委员会几个月来的磋商。他确认,美国急切希望加强与印度的关系。他说:“印度正在寻找一个伙伴,美国就是那个伙伴。”

蒂勒森说,印度是阿富汗和平的伙伴,他欢迎印度援助饱受战争创伤的阿富汗。他呼吁巴基斯坦采取果断行动,打击其境内威胁巴基斯坦本身以及边境安全的恐怖组织。

在被问到美国政策转向印度是否会引起巴基斯坦担心时,美国国务院资深发言人说,美国与印度关系的加强不以损害巴基斯坦为代价,反之亦然。

Tillerson Embraces Closer US Ties With India, Calls Out China

Secretary of State Rex Tillerson has given a rare, major foreign policy speech outlining the Trump administration’s south Asia policy, reaching out to India to counter China in the Indo-Pacific region.

Speaking to a packed auditorium at the Center for Strategic and International Studies research center in Washington, D.C., Tillerson looked forward to the next 100 years of close U.S.-India ties.

“President Trump and [Indian] Prime Minister Modi are committed - more than any of our leaders before them - to building an ambitious partnership that benefits not only our two great democracies, but other sovereign nations working toward greater peace and stability.”

Tillerson said the U.S. and India are “bookends of stability” on either side of the globe, noting the nations share a commitment to upholding the rule of law, freedom of navigation, universal values and free trade. Tillerson said the Trump administration is determined to “dramatically deepen” ways for the United States and India to work together, and he announced that he will be visiting New Delhi next week.

Asia expert Michael Kugelman said that while Tillerson’s focus on defense and security cooperation was predictable, he "was also struck how he spoke in great detail, and at the very beginning of the speech, about economic partnership. Economic cooperation has lagged behind defense cooperation, and so we can read this as an effort to expand the relationship beyond its main comfort level of defense and security.”

Tillerson took a more strident tone on China.

“China’s provocative actions in the South China Sea directly challenge the international law and norms that the United States and India both stand for. The United States seeks constructive relations with China," said Tillerson. "But we will not shrink from China’s challenges to the rules-based order, and where China subverts the sovereignty of neighboring countries, and disadvantages the U.S. and our friends.”

The secretary of state said India and China both have risen over the past decades to become global powers. He contrasted their paths, though, saying China "has done so less responsibly, at times undermining the international, rules-based order — even as countries like India operate within a framework that protects other nations' sovereignty."

The Chinese embassy responded later Wednesday to Tillerson’s comments, saying in a statement to VOA: “China contributes to and defends the rules-based world order and seeks to enhance international cooperation with the United Nations at the center.

“We are fully committed to forging a fair and just world order together with the rest of the world, providing the greatest good for the greatest number of people through win-win cooperation. For example, we put forward the Belt and Road Initiative which aims to boost common development and has earned the support and participation of many countries across the globe,” the statement said.

Kugelman said U.S. policy toward India has been consistent for the last 15 years, but he noted that what makes the policy outlined by Tillerson a bit different is its explicit focus on China.

“The Obama administration agreed that shared concern about China was a major strategic issue that brings the U.S. and India together. And yet, the Obama administration chose to be less overt in calling out China and in highlighting it as a point of convergence for U.S.-India ties," said Kugelman. "The Obama White House struggled in its relations with Beijing, but at the same time it didn’t want to alienate the Chinese. With the Trump administration, there is a tendency to take less of a 'kid gloves' [cautious] approach."

A senior State Department spokesman told reporters later Wednesday that Tillerson’s speech was the culmination of several months of deliberation between the State Department, the White House and the National Security Council. The spokesman confirmed U.S. eagerness to strengthen ties with India, saying, “India is looking for a partner - America is that partner.”

Tillerson said India is a partner for peace in Afghanistan, and he welcomed India’s assistance to that war-torn country. He called on Pakistan to take decisive action against terrorist groups based within their own borders there that threaten its own people and the broader region. Asked about concerns Pakistan might have about a U.S. shift toward India, a senior State Department spokesman said a stronger U.S. relationship with India does not come at the expense of Pakistan, and vice versa.