穆加贝被软禁后首度公开露面

编辑:给力英语新闻 更新:2017年11月18日 作者:美国之音(VOA News)

津巴布韦总统穆加贝在首都哈拉雷参加一所大学的毕业典礼(2017年11月17日)
津巴布韦总统穆加贝在首都哈拉雷参加一所大学的毕业典礼(2017年11月17日)

长期统治津巴布韦的总统罗伯特·穆加贝本周早些时候被军方软禁后,周五首次公开露面。

这位体弱的领导人身着蓝黄相间的学位礼服,头戴学位帽,在首都哈拉雷参加毕业典礼,人群为他鼓掌。

津巴布韦民众希望迅速和顺利地解决他们国家突如其来的政治危机。国内反对派人士,民间社会和宗教团体都敦促穆加贝在军事接管之后下台。

但周四有报道说,穆加贝抵制这一呼声。南非总统祖马也打消了人们对事情尽快结束的希望。他告知议会说:“现在就做出任何确实决定为时尚早”。

津巴布韦官方媒体发布的图片显示,穆加贝站在军事统帅奇文加旁边。这位93岁的领导人出席毕业典礼是他周二被软禁之后第一次出门。军方以迅速而无流血的行动夺取了对这个南部非洲国家的控制权。

美国主管非洲事务的助理国务卿山本表示,美国希望津巴布韦“向新时代过渡”。

查塔姆研究所的分析人士奇蒂约(Knox Chitiyo)在坦克星期二进入哈拉雷的时候就在当地。这位津巴布韦学者说,人们认为军队掌管的时间越长,局势就会越不稳定。

他在约翰内斯堡告诉美国之音记者说:“关键问题在于时间表,军方希望尽快完成这些谈判。他们想要一位总统,或者如果是代理总统,尽快到位。他们希望尽快宣布一个临时政府。军方不希望这样拖下来,因为这一切拖得越久,就可能变得越来越混乱。”

津巴布韦反对派的一些关键人物正在计划明年的选举之前提出组建过渡政府。

反对党领袖茨万吉拉伊(Morgan Tsvangirai)周四敦促穆加贝辞职。

他在哈拉雷告诉记者说:“穆加贝必须辞职,顺应民众情绪和期望立即下台,同时充分考虑到他的遗产和对津巴布韦立国前后的贡献。”

最近被穆加贝解职的副总统姆南加古瓦(Emmerson Mnangagwa)一直保持低调,他可以说是这次军事接管的催化剂。国际危机组织的庇古(Piers Pigou)表示,姆南加古瓦如果看起来太靠近军方,将会失去信誉。

他告诉美国之音记者说:“对于新任职的人来说,我认为能够远离武装部队在这里的非法行动,或者表面上看起来是这样,这绝对是至关重要的。我只是看不出来他们将如何把口红涂到猪身上。”

但是奇蒂约说,谈判人员有很多要讨论的。穆加贝领导了几十年的执政党非洲民族联盟——爱国阵线党,长期以来一直存在着严重的裂痕。观察家们认为解除姆南加古瓦的职务是为了让穆加贝的妻子格雷格·穆加贝(Grace Mugabe)上位副总统迈出的一步。这样有一天这位不受欢迎的第一夫人将会取代她93岁的丈夫。

奇蒂约说:“情况非常微妙,党内、党与反对派之间,以及与南非和地区之间的谈判都是如此,存在多方交涉。谈得太早,说得太多可能弊大于利。我想这就是军方所说的。”

军方坚持认为这不是一场政变,强大的退伍军人协会称这一行动是“无血的纠错”。

然而,为了这个说法成立,他们需要得到没有人认为容易得到的东西,那就是让津巴布韦这位好战而充满激情的领导人不战而退。

Mugabe Appears in Public

Robert Mugabe, the longtime president of Zimbabwe, made his first public appearance Friday since the military placed him under arrest earlier this week.

The frail leader, dressed in a blue and yellow academic gown and a mortar board, attended a graduation ceremony in Harare, the capital, where the crowd cheered him.

Zimbabweans are hoping for a speedy and smooth resolution to their nation's sudden political crisis, as opposition figures, civil society and religious groups urge Mugabe to step down in the wake of a military takeover.

But reports Thursday said Mugabe was resisting, and South Africa’s president, Jacob Zuma, dashed hopes of a quick final act, telling his parliament, “It is too early to take any firm decision now.”

Pictures released on official media in Zimbabwe Thursday showed Mugabe standing beside military boss Constantino Chiwenga. The 93-year-old leader’s television appearance was his first public sighting since being placed under house arrest Tuesday by military forces as they seized control of the southern African country in a swift and bloodless operation.

The military said it was holding talks with Mugabe. He was taken to the State House Thursday for talks with the military and South African mediators.

Donald Yamamoto, the U.S. assistant secretary of state for African Affairs said the U.S. is hoping Zimbabwe is set to enter “a transition to a new era.”

Analyst Knox Chitiyo of the Chatham House research institution, was in Harare when the military deployed its tanks on Tuesday. Chitiyo, who is Zimbabwean, says the longer the military is perceived to be in charge, the more unstable things will become.

“The key issue is the time scale," he told VOA in Johannesburg. "The military will want...these negotiations to be completed, as quickly as possible. They want to have the president, or if it’s acting president, in place as soon as possible. They want an interim administration announced, I think, as soon as possible. The military does not want this to drag out, because the longer all this drags out, the murkier, the messier it could become.”

Some key figures in Zimbabwe’s opposition are proposing a transitional government ahead of the elections already planned for next year.

Opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai on Thursday urged Mugabe to resign.

“Mr. Robert Mugabe must resign, step down immediately in line with the national sentiment and expectation, taking full regard of his legacy and his contribution to Zimbabwe, pre- and post-Zimbabwe," he told reporters in Harare.

The vice president whom Mugabe recently fired – arguably the catalyst for this military takeover - has kept a low profile. Emmerson Mnangagwa, says Piers Pigou of the International Crisis Group, will lose credibility if he appears too close to the military.

“It’s absolutely critical for the new incumbent to be able to, I suppose, be able to distance themselves from the illegal actions of the armed forces here, or ostensibly what looks like it," he told VOA. "I simply don’t know how they’re going to put lipstick on that pig.”

But, Chitiyo says, the negotiators have a lot to discuss. The crisis came out of a long-running, bitter rift in the ruling ZANU-PF party, which Mugabe has led for decades. Observers saw the move to fire Mnangagwa as a step toward the installation of Mugabe's wife, Grace Mugabe, as vice president. That would have put the unpopular first lady in line to someday replace her 93-year-old husband.

“It’s very delicate, there’s also negotiations within the party, between the party and the opposition, between the powers that be currently and South Africa and the region," Chitiyo said. "So there’s multiple negotiations, delicate negotiations. Too much talk too soon could do more harm than good. I think that’s what the military is saying.”

The military insists this is not a coup, and the powerful war veterans’ association called the action a “bloodless correction.”

For that narrative to work, however, they need one thing that no one ever thought would be easy to get: for Zimbabwe’s fiery, passionate leader to leave without a fight.