八座酷炫的人行桥(高清图片)

编辑:给力英语新闻 更新:2017年11月13日 作者:菲奥娜·麦当劳(Fiona Macdonald)

The world's most amazing footbridges

最早的人行桥是其貌不扬的单拱桥结构。而现在的人行桥则拥有复杂的移动部件、不规则的形状和纵横交错的步道:其中有一座甚至曾经淹没在水渠之下。2015年,伦敦市政府举办了一场横跨泰晤士河的人行桥设计比赛,来自世界各地的建筑事务所发来74份应征方案,这些匿名设计方案包括螺旋形步道、不规则方格和瀑布形设计。这是自托马斯·希瑟威克(Thomas Heatherwick)设计的长满树木和草坪的"花园桥"(Garden Bridge)方案于2014年12月获批以来,伦敦举办的第二次人行桥设计比赛。

以下是八座21世纪最炫酷的桥:

伦敦滚动桥(Rolling Bridge)

(图片来源: Steve Speller/Alamy)

位于伦敦帕丁顿盆地(Paddington Basin)的滚动桥是由托马斯·希瑟威克在2004年设计,希瑟威克同时也重新设计了伦敦标志性的双层巴士。在一系列液压油缸作用下,桥梁结构可以翻卷起来,从而使船只通过。希瑟威克事务所称,"设计要点在于让结构变换成为这座桥最与众不同的特色。活动桥的一般设计方式是树起一个刚性构件,让它远离水面。滚动桥则通过缓慢而平稳的卷曲动作使一座看起来与普通桥梁无异的桥蜷成一座河道岸上的圆形雕塑。"

新加坡亨德申波浪桥(Henderson Waves)

(图片来源: Zoonar GmbH/Alamy)

这座新加坡最高的人行桥用来连接新加坡岛南部的两座公园。由伦敦IJP公司和新加坡RSP建筑规划工程事务所联合设计,并于2008年落成。这座274米长的波浪形人行桥由7组弧形钢肋作为结构件,同时为设置座椅提供了凹形空间。

(图片来源: Carole Gieseke)

这座桥曾经是艾奥瓦州(Iowa)得梅因河(Des Moines)上的联合太平洋铁路桥,后于2011年改建并成为一条40公里长的户外路径的一部分。这座桥长800米,高40米,采用混凝土桥墩。当原有铁路桥桥面拆除后,它得到了"艾奥瓦巨石阵"的雅号。David Dahlquist事务所沿桥长方向设置了41只钢框架以模拟矿井景观,从而体现该地区采矿业的历史。

(图片来源: Rural Urban Framework/Joshua Bolchover and John Lin)

建筑师乔舒亚·伯克弗(Joshua Bolchover)与林君翰在城乡结合部免费设计这座桥梁的目的在于解决中国大型基础设施项目引发的社会问题。陕南地区修建一条高速路过程中,拆除了成百上千座小型桥梁。岭子底便民桥与2012年落成,为岭子底村的往来交通提供了很大方便。这座双层小桥连接了河岸的不同高度,便于人们从事钓鱼、游泳和洗衣等活动,村民们沿桥过河后可以抵达农田。"尽管这座桥规模很小,但对当地农村经济而言却十分重要,"建筑师表示。"它鼓励村民们在经济上实现自给自足,而不是依赖于在城镇工厂打工的年轻人寄钱回来。"

(图片来源: RO&AD)

荷兰RO&AD建筑师事务所是研究护城河的专家。他们在荷兰南部一座18世纪古堡旁设计了一座浮桥——由水下充满空气的浮管提供浮力,并将这座浮桥命名为摩西桥。浮桥由防水木材制作,其边缘与护城河水面近乎平齐,将行人与河水分开。从远处看,这座浮桥在远处很难发现,只有从高处才能看到一条壕沟,堪称是光学幻觉绝佳之作。即便在水位上升的情况下,行人也不会湿水:洪水来袭时,一台水泵会把溢入的水排掉。

伦敦扇桥(Fan Bridge)

(图片来源: VIEW Pictures Ltd/Alamy)

伦敦帕丁顿盆地近年又出现了一座造型新颖的移动桥。2014年,在希瑟威克的滚动桥落成10年后,这座新桥对公众开放。新桥采用悬挑设计,像一面扇子一样跨越河道。扇桥由液压千斤顶驱动,与其说是一座桥梁,倒更像一座巨型可移动雕塑。Knight建筑师事务所赢得竞标后,与结构工程事务所AKT II联合设计了这座桥梁:他们表示这座"美观而高效的新桥达到了高度的艺术和科学水准。"

荷兰银河桥(Melkwegbridge)

(图片来源: NEXT Architects)

于2012年在荷兰皮尔默伦德(Purmerend)的运河上落成的银河桥实际上由两座桥组成。其中一座高桥为高出水面12米的拱桥。行人在桥顶可远眺新老城区,船只可从桥下穿过。另一座矮桥的坡度平缓,可供轮椅和自行车通行。矮桥为活动桥设计,可在船只抵达时开启供船只通行。设计者NEXT建筑师事务所(该事务所同时设计了中国龙王港景观桥)表示:"这座桥不仅为人们提供了最便捷的通行路线,它本身也构成了一个景点。"

巴黎波伏娃步行桥(Simone de Beauvoir)

(图片来源: David Boueau)

奥地利建筑师迪特马尔·菲赫廷格尔(DietmarFeichtinger)有丰富的桥梁设计经验。他设计了里昂罗纳河大桥、通往圣米歇尔山的堤道和哥本哈根Y形蝴蝶桥。巴黎波伏娃步行桥落成于2006年,行人走上这座桥可以跨越塞纳河以及与塞纳河平行的繁忙道路。五条走道与不同高程的河岸以及一座公园连接,步行桥中央部位有避雨棚。

Eight amazing footbridge

The humble footbridge has come a long way from a simple arch across a waterway. Designs now feature complex moving parts, winding forms and interlocking ramps: there’s even one that has been submerged in a moat. Early in 2015, a design competition to create a structure spanning the Thames in London received 74 entries from firms around the world. The anonymous proposals included spiralling ramps, irregular latticework and a waterfall. It’s the second pedestrian bridge proposed for London – a ‘Garden Bridge’ covered in trees and plants, designed by Thomas Heatherwick, was approved in December 2014. Here are eight of the most eye-catching structures from the 21st Century.

Rolling Bridge, London

The Rolling Bridge in Paddington Basin was a 2004 work by Heatherwick, who has also redesigned London’s iconic double-decker bus. A series of hydraulic rams allow the structure to curl up, giving access to boats moored in the inlet. According to Heatherwick Studio: “The aim was to make the movement the extraordinary aspect of the bridge. A common approach to designing opening bridges is to have a single rigid element that fractures and lifts out of the way. Rolling Bridge opens by slowly and smoothly curling until it transforms from a conventional, straight bridge into a circular sculpture that sits on the bank of the canal.”

Henderson Waves, Singapore

The highest pedestrian bridge in Singapore was built to connect two parks on the south of the island. Unveiled in 2008, it was designed by London-based IJP Corporation and RSP Architects Planners and Engineers in Singapore. Seven curved steel ribs create an undulating shape along the 274m (899ft) length, offering hidden alcoves with seats.  

High Trestle Trail Bridge

Once a Union Pacific Railroad crossing of the Des Moines River in Iowa, the High Trestle Trail Bridge was reopened in 2011 as part of a 40km (25 mile)-long trail. Eight-hundred metres (half a mile) long and 40m (130ft) high, it rests on a series of concrete piers: they were known as ‘Iowa’s Stonehenge’ after the original bridge deck was removed. David Dahlquist Studios created 41 steel frames that are positioned along the bridge to simulate the view through a mine shaft, a reference to the area’s history of mining. (Image from Carole Gieseke)

Lingzidi Bridge, Shangzhou

Architects Joshua Bolchover and John Lin set up the not-for-profit Rural Urban Framework in part to tackle social problems caused by China’s large infrastructure projects. In the southern Shaanxi province, the construction of a new motorway meant that hundreds of local bridges had to be destroyed. The Lingzidi Bridge was completed in 2012 and is designed to ease movement across the river next to Lingzidi village. One loop links two levels of the riverbank, offering access for fishing, bathing and laundry, and an extra branch spans the river, allowing villagers to reach a farm. “Despite its small scale, this bridge is a critical link for the local village economy,” say the architects. “It encourages villagers to maintain and improve their local economy rather than rely on sources sent back from younger generations working in factory towns.”

Moses Bridge, Netherlands

Dutch architects RO&AD are masters of the moat. They created a floating bridge next to an 18th-Century fortress – resting on air-filled pipes under the surface – and submerged a crossing with their aptly-named Moses Bridge in the southern Netherlands. Made of waterproofed wood with an edge almost flush with the surface of the moat, it parts the waters for pedestrians. Invisible from a distance, a trench when seen from above, it’s a bridge as optical illusion. Even when the water level rises, visitors can stay dry: a pump system removes excess water in case of flooding.

Fan Bridge, London

The residents of London’s Paddington Basin have a choice in movable footbridges. A new structure was unveiled in September 2014, ten years after Heatherwick’s Rolling Bridge. The cantilevered design opens across the canal like a fan with the help of hydraulic jacks, as much a kinetic sculpture as it is a bridge. British firm Knight Architects won the competition to design a new crossing, working with structural engineers AKT II: they claim that “Beautiful, efficient bridge design should satisfy both artistic and scientific analysis”.

Melkwegbridge, Netherlands

Completed in 2012, the canal crossing at Purmerend in the Netherlands is actually two bridges. One, an arch reaching a height of 12m above water level, offers pedestrians a view of both the historic and new areas of the city as well as allowing boats to pass beneath; the lower deck is at a slope accessible by wheelchairs and bicycles, and splits into two parts that revolve open when boats approach. According to its designers, NEXT architects (who have also come up with the Dragon King Kong Bridge in China): “The bridge becomes more than just the fastest possible crossing, it becomes an end and an attraction in itself.”

Simone de Beauvoir Bridge, Paris

Austrian architects Dietmar Feichtinger have some experience with bridges: as well as designing one spanning the Rhone river in Lyon and a jetty leading to Mont Saint-Michel, they created the Butterfly Bridge in Copenhagen, which opens in three ways. The Simone de Beauvoir bridge in Paris was completed in 2006, its criss-crossing pathways allowing access across the river and over the busy roads parallel to the Seine. Five paths link banks of differing heights as well as a park, and a protected area in the middle offers shelter from rain.