美国众议院通过全面税改方案

编辑:给力英语新闻 更新:2017年11月17日 作者:美国之音布雷德迈尔(Ken Bredemeier)

华盛顿日出时分的美国国会大厦(2017年10月10日)。
华盛顿日出时分的美国国会大厦(2017年10月10日)。

美国国会众议院星期四通过了大规模修改美国税收政策的法案,这些改变最终将大幅削减公司所得税,并削减数百万中产阶级美国人的税。

众议院在川普总统星期四与主控众议院的共和党团会面后很快采取行动,以227票对205票的表决结果,克服了民主党议员的强大阻力,通过了税改方案。

在这之前,众议院共和党人对有足够票数通过税改案表示乐观。这些改变将把公司税从属于世界最高列的35%削减到20%,并削减数百万中产阶级纳税人的税额,不过并不是每个中产阶级人士都能减税。这项方案将使美国200万亿美元的长期债务再增加1万5千亿美元。

川普总统执政10个月后还没有任何重大立法胜利。他一直敦促国会在圣诞节前通过税改方案。不过,这些修改措施具有争议性,没有任何民主党议员宣布支持这样的方案。

参议院的共和党领袖也在推动他们自己的税改方案,但是参议院版本的命运并不确定。共和党人在参议院只有52席对48席的优势。代表威斯康辛州的罗恩·约翰逊参议员星期三成为第一个宣布反对两院税改版本的共和党参议员。他说,税改方案在帮助小企业减税方面做得不够。

民主党人反对共和党的减税努力,他们认为,这是让美国最富有的纳税人大大受益,对其他人的帮助却远远不够。几乎所有美国人都将受到税改方案的影响,但是由于全面税改方案不断变化,现在就确定具体某个人能否少交税,还不那么容易算清。

川普在他的推特上说:“快要减税了!”

他还抨击民主党人不支持减税。他说:“民主人为什么抵抗为中产阶级和公司(就业)大规模减税?原因:阻碍和拖延!”

众议院的重要共和党领袖凯文·布雷迪说,众议院的方案“代表着一条大胆的前进道路,将让我们国家一劳永逸地冲破增长缓慢的现状。”

不过,由于川普要求国会把一项涉及奥巴马医保的条款加入到法案中,这使他的税改努力变得复杂了。奥巴马医保法规定多数美国人必须购买医疗保险,否则就要支付罚款。税改法案取消了这样的要求。国会的共和党人今年曾大力推动全面改革美国医疗政策并废除奥巴马医保法,但他们的努力以失败告终。

民主党议员和某些共和党人反对把医改法内容加进税改法。如果税改方案保留这样的内容,有可能影响它的通过前景,特别是在参议院。

川普总统在访问亚洲五国期间曾发推说:“我为(共和党)众议院和参议院如此努力地减税(并改革)感到骄傲。我们接近了!现在,是不是要终结不公平和极不得人心的奥巴马医保(个人)强买保险规定,并进一步减税?”

US House Approves Massive Tax Overhaul

The U.S. House of Representatives approved a massive overhaul of the country's tax policies Thursday, changes that could eventually sharply cut corporate income taxes and trim tax bills for millions of middle-class Americans.

The House acted after President Donald Trump met with the majority Republican caucus in the House shortly before they voted, 227-205, to approve their proposal over the overwhelming opposition of Democratic lawmakers.

Beforehand, Republican leaders in the House had voiced optimism that they had enough votes to approve the changes that would cut the corporate tax rate from 35 percent, one of the higher rates in the world, to 20 percent and cut taxes for millions of middle-class taxpayers, but not everyone. The measure would add $1.5 trillion to the country's long-term $20 trillion in debt.

Trump, without a major legislative victory in his first 10 months in office, has been urging Congress to adopt a tax overhaul by Christmas. But the changes are controversial and no Democratic lawmakers have announced their support.

Republican leaders in the Senate are advancing their own tax plan, but its fate is uncertain, with Republicans holding only a 52-48 majority. Senator Ron Johnson of Wisconsin on Wednesday became the first Republican senator to announce his opposition to both the Senate and House versions of the changes because he said they would not cut taxes enough to help small businesses.

Democrats have opposed the Republican tax-cutting effort, which they say greatly benefits the country's wealthiest taxpayers without providing enough help for people who earn far less money.

Virtually every U.S. taxpayer would be affected by the changes being considered, but the overhaul is in such a state of flux in Congress that individuals have been hard-pressed to determine whether they would get a tax cut or not.

Trump said on his Twitter account, "Tax cuts are getting close!"

A key House Republican leader, Representative Kevin Brady of Texas, said the House plan "represents a bold path forward that will allow us as a nation to break out of the slow-growth status quo once and for all."

Trump, however, has complicated his push for tax reform by asking that Congress include a provision that would end the requirement that most Americans buy health insurance or pay a fine if they do not. Congress already failed earlier this year to overhaul national health care policies championed by former President Barack Obama, in a law commonly known as Obamacare.

Democratic lawmakers, and some Republicans, are opposed to attaching the health law change on buying insurance in the tax legislation, which, if it is kept in the tax proposal, could imperil its passage, especially in the Senate.

While he was on his five-nation Asia trip, Trump tweeted, "I am proud of the (Republican) House & Senate for working so hard on cutting taxes (& reform.) We're getting close! Now, how about ending the unfair & highly unpopular (individual) Mandate in OCare & reducing taxes even further?"