美国通过税改方案,电动汽车企业拥抱中国市场

编辑:给力英语新闻 更新:2017年11月17日 作者:纽约时报(By KEITH BRADSHER)

上周,中国柳州的汽车组装厂,工人正在检查宝骏E100型电动汽车。中国正大力推动电动汽车的销售。
上周,中国柳州的汽车组装厂,工人正在检查宝骏E100型电动汽车。中国正大力推动电动汽车的销售。

中国广州——在美国,政客们周四要对一项提案进行表决,提案中有一条是取消向电动汽车购买者提供7500美元的税收抵免。在中国,来自世界各地的汽车制造高管们正在为讨论在这里销售更多电动汽车的宏伟计划欢聚一堂。

华盛顿的政治并没有直接了当地把汽车制造商推向优先考虑中国。但中美两国截然不同的做法已增加了汽车制造业高管们日益增长的共识,那就是,中国将在这个快速增长的领域引领世界,虽然在美国,通用汽车和福特公司都在计划制造更多的电动汽车。

大众汽车周四宣布,计划在2020年至2025年期间向中国市场推出25款电动汽车,这个数字不包括大众已计划在2020年前向中国市场推出的15款电动汽车。大众汽车集团(中国)首席执行官约赫姆·海兹曼(Jochem Heizmann)说,公司及其合资伙伴将为这一努力投入约120亿美元的资金。

海兹曼说,大众在中国短期产品线中的大部分电动汽车的车型都仍基于现有的内燃机设计。但计划推出的25款新型电动汽车中的大部分将是从头到尾按电动汽车设计制造的,他说,这将能让工程师在最大限度地提高能源效率和乘客舒适度上做出非常不同的设计决定。

其他汽车制造商也在做出类似的宣布。通用汽车在周一表示,公司正在考虑什么时候开始在中国更大范围地推出其宝骏E100型电动汽车,公司自今年7月以来已在中国南方一座中型城市销售了4000多辆这个型号的汽车。日产汽车也准备在广州汽车展周五的开幕式上宣布,中国将成为公司新款电池驱动的电动汽车Leaf的首销市场之一,同时,日产也将在中国范围内大力推广汽车销售。

中国正在制定计划,将最终停止销售以汽油和柴油为动力的传统汽车,“中国的速度比世界其他地区都快,”海兹曼说。“新能源汽车这块在中国的发展也会更快,”他补充说。

中国对电动汽车事业的推动已刺激了一大批初创企业在中国许多省份诞生,中国几乎所有的汽车制造商都在集中精力推销电动汽车,并计划在广州汽车展上推出数十款这种汽车。

“如果你看看20世纪初的底特律,当时那里有250家汽车制造商,这和中国现在的电动汽车业差不多,”美国能源与运输咨询公司Rethink X的创始人托尼·塞巴(Tony Seba)说。“他们遥遥领先。”

今年9月,中国宣布了严格规定,将在2019年开始考核汽车制造商是否在销售电动汽车或充电式混合动力汽车方面达标,如果它们想继续销售汽油动力汽车的话。那之后,中国还计划在2020年底逐步取消政府对电动汽车的慷慨补贴,迫使汽车制造商在没有补贴的情况下设法实现盈利。

不过,海兹曼在周四表示,即使中国没有发布新的严格规定,汽车制造商也无法满足中国已经制定的2020年燃油经济性目标,除非它们销售大量的电动汽车,并基本上停止销售除最小型号汽车外的所有汽油动力汽车。中国将在2020年要求所有汽车制造商在国内销售的汽车达到每5升油100公里(相当于每加仑47英里)的油耗标准。

这与美国形成鲜明对比。

美国众议院中的共和党人正在推出取消电动汽车税收抵免的议案,据国会税收联合委员会的计算,这可能在未来几年里让政府得到约2亿美元的税收,或可大约抵消众议院税收法案中减税总值的0.005%。参议院的税收法案不包含取消电动汽车税收抵免的条款,但该法案面临着越来越不确定的前景。

如果参众两院分别通过各自法案的话,最终立法中是否包括取消电动汽车税收抵免的条款将由一个两院联合委员会来决定。

美国国家环境保护局已在今年8月开始评估现有的汽车油耗标准,这被广泛认为是为放松奥巴马政府制定的油耗标准做准备,奥巴马政府曾要求汽车制造商,到2025年实现汽车平均燃油经济性翻番,达到每加仑54.5英里。

但由于美国和中国的油耗标准测试之间存在一些差异,让人无法对它们进行严格的比较。中国对相同汽车的测试往往显示略高的燃油经济性。

汽车制造商也在把电动汽车零部件的生产转移到中国。通用汽车公司的电动汽车一直靠韩国为其提供大型电池,现在通用汽车正在从中国供应商那里购买电池,负责公司广泛的中国业务的全球执行副总裁钱惠康(Matthew Tsien)说。这将帮助通用汽车获得中国对电动汽车提供补贴的资格,补贴要求相当多的汽车部件在国内生产。

“我们的确看到中国成为世界上遥遥领先的电动汽车市场,至少在中短期内,”通用汽车公司总裁丹·阿曼(Dan Ammann)本周在纽约接受采访时说。“但我们相信,全世界最终都将走上这个方向。”

翻译:Cindy Hao

As U.S. Debates Ending Electric Car Tax Credit, China Aims to Expand Sales

GUANGZHOU, China — In the United States, politicians were to vote on Thursday on a proposal that included repeal of a $7,500 tax credit for buyers of electric cars. In China, auto executives from around the world were gathering to talk about ambitious plans to sell more of those vehicles here.

The politics in Washington have not explicitly pushed carmakers to prioritize China. But the dueling approaches have added to a growing consensus among auto executives — even in the United States, where General Motors and Ford are planning to build more electric vehicles — that China will lead the world in the fast-growing sector.

Volkswagen announced on Thursday that it planned to introduce to the Chinese market 25 models of electric cars between 2020 and 2025, in addition to the 15 electric models it already had planned to bring to the country by 2020. The company and its joint venture partners will invest almost $12 billion in the effort, said Jochem Heizmann, the chief executive of Volkswagen Group China.

Mr. Heizmann said that most of the electric car models in VW’s short-term product pipeline for China are based on existing designs for internal combustion engines. But a majority of the 25 additional electric car models will be created from the ground up as electric cars, he said, an approach that allows engineers to make very different design decisions to maximize energy efficiency and passenger comfort.

Other carmakers are making similar announcements. G.M. said on Monday that it was weighing when to start a broader rollout of its Baojun E100 electric car after selling more than 4,000 in just one midsize city in southern China since July. Nissan is preparing to announce on Friday, at the opening of the Guangzhou auto show, that China will be one of the first markets in which it sells the new, battery-powered electric Leaf with a big nationwide sales push.

With China making plans to eventually ban conventional gasoline- and diesel-powered cars, “The pace is quicker in China than in other areas of the world,” Mr. Heizmann said. “The portion of new energy vehicles will develop quicker in China,” he added.

The push toward electric vehicles in China has spurred creation of a slew of start-ups in many provinces here, and nearly all Chinese automakers are focused on marketing electric cars, with plans to introduce dozens of such at the Guangzhou show.

“If you look at Detroit in the early 20th century, there were 250 carmakers, and that is pretty much what China has in electric vehicles now,” said Tony Seba, the founder of Rethink X, an American energy and transportation consulting firm. “They are far ahead.”

China issued strict regulations in September requiring automakers to sell large numbers of electric cars or plug-in hybrids in 2019 if they want to keep selling gasoline-powered cars. China then plans to phase out its generous electric car subsidies at the end of 2020, pushing automakers to figure out how to profit without them.

But Mr. Heizmann said on Thursday that even if China had not issued the regulations, its stringent fuel economy targets for 2020 could not be met without selling a lot of electric cars or halting the sale of all but the smallest gasoline-powered cars. The country will require each carmaker that year to sell cars with an overall average fuel economy of 47 miles per gallon.

The contrast with the United States is stark.

Republicans in the House of Representatives are pushing a repeal of the electric car tax credit, which could equate to about $200 million in the coming years, according to Congress’s Joint Committee on Taxation, or about 0.005 percent of the value of all of the tax cuts in the House bill. The Senate tax bill, which faces increasingly uncertain prospects, does not call for repeal of the electric vehicle tax credit.

If the House and Senate measures both pass, a House-Senate committee would then decide whether to include a repeal of the tax credit in the final legislation.

The Environmental Protection Agency began a review in August of fuel economy rules that is widely seen as preparation to loosen an Obama administration requirement that automakers double vehicles average fuel economy to 54.5 miles a gallon by 2025.

There are some differences between the American and Chinese fuel economy tests that make them not strictly comparable, however: The Chinese tests tend to show a slightly higher fuel economy for the same cars.

Automakers are also moving the production of parts to China for electric cars. Reliant on very large batteries from South Korea for its electric cars, G.M. is now moving to buy many of its batteries from Chinese suppliers, said Matthew Tsien, the executive vice president who oversees G.M.’s extensive China operations. That helps the company qualify for Chinese electric car subsidies that require considerable domestic content.

“We do see China being, in the near and medium term at least, by far the largest market for electric vehicles in the world,” Dan Ammann, G.M.’s president, said in an interview in New York this week. “But we believe ultimately that the whole world will go that direction.”