Roger Woodham replies:'-ed' and '-ing'
The barking dogs kept me awake all night.The dogs that were barking kept me awake all night.The barked dogs kept me awake all night.The dogs that had been barked kept me awake all night.Barking works in the first pair of examples because -ing forms when used as adjectives have similar meanings to active verbs.
The abandoned child cried for three days without stopping.The child that had been abandoned cried for three days.The abandoning child was so unhappy she cried for three days.The child which was abandoning was so upset she cried for three days.Abandoning doesn't work because children cannot abandon themselves, though the unfortunate ones are sometimes abandoned by their parents.
She is suffering from a broken heartHer heart has been broken by his cruel behaviour.The breaking waves pushed the surfboard further out to sea.Huge waves breaking on the beach pushed the surtboard out to sea.alarmed houses [ yes ] alarming reports [ yes ]
Alarmed houses afford some protection against burglary.Houses which are alarmed afford some protection against burglary.Alarming reports are coming in that refugees are being racially abused.Reports are coming in that refugees are being racially abused. This alarms me.A small number of verbs have past participles that can be used as adjectives before nouns with active meanings. Note with these examples there may not be so much change in meaning between the -ing and -ed forms:
falling/fallen [ yes ] advanced/advancing [ yes ] developing/developed [ yes ]The falling leaves covered the path and made it quite slippery.The leaves that were falling covered the path and made it slippery.The fallen trees blocked the road and only pedestrians could get through.The trees that had fallen blocked the road and made it quite impassable.When we think of countries that are still developing and countries that have developed, it is true to say that:a) developing countries need as much help as they can get.b) it is the developed nations which should provide it.This class is appropriate only for advanced students.It is suitable for students who have advanced beyond level five.The advancing army surrounded the city and cut off all its supply lines.The army, which was advancing rapidly, had cut off the city by nightfall.