使用定语从句常见错误详解 - 给力英语
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使用定语从句常见错误详解

发布:englishfan    时间:2009-07-12 20:45:43     浏览:2342次    [划词翻译已启用]

 由于定语从句的结构和用法比较复杂,初学者在使用时往往容易犯一些错误,最常见的有如下七种:
   一、在定语从句中加了多余的定语。如:   
  1.误:Some of the boys I invited them didn’t come.
  正:Some of the boys I invited didn’t come.
  译:我邀请的男孩中有几个没有来。
  析:应删去them,因为从句的宾语是省略了的whom,who或that。  
  2.误:The book that you need it is in the library.
  正:The book that you need is in the library.
  译:你需要的书在图书馆里。
  析:应删去it,因为从句的宾语是关系代词that。

  二、把定语从句谓语动词的单、复数弄错。如:  
  1.误:Anyone who break the law will be punished.
  正:Anyone who breaks the law will be punished.
  译:任何违犯法律的人将被处罚。
  析:应改break为breaks,因为who指anyone,是单数。  
  2.误:Those who has finished may go home.
  正:Those who have finished may go home.
  译:做完了的人现在可以回家。
  析:应改has为have,因为who指those,是复数。  
  3.误:He is the only one of the teachers who know French in our school.
  正:He is the only one of the teachers who knows French in our school.
  译:他是我们学校中唯一懂法语的人。
  析:应改know为knows,因为one前有the only之类限定词,定语从句在意义上修饰 的是the only one,是单数,而不是复数名词the teachers。  
  4.误:This is one of the rooms that is free now.
  正:This is one of the rooms that are free now.
  译:这是目前空着的房间之一。
  析:应改is为are,因为one前没有the only之类的限定词,定语从句在意义上修饰的是名词复数the rooms,而不是单数one。
    三、误省略了定语从句中作主语的关系代词。如:   
  1.误:Children eat a lot of sugar often have bad teeth.
  正:Children who that eat a lot of sugar often have bad teeth.
  译:吃糖多的孩子往往牙齿不好。
  析:应加上关系代词who或that,因为从句少主语,且主语不能省略。  
  2.误:The key opens the bike is missing.
  正:The key that/which opens the bike is missing.
  译:开这辆自行车的钥匙不见了。
  析:应加上关系代词that或which,因为从句少主语,且主语不能省略。

  四、定语从句中加了多余的关系副词或介词。如:   
  1.误:The house where he lives in needs repairing.
  正:The house where he lives needs repairing.
  或:The house he lives in needs repairing.
  译:他住的房子需要修理。
  析:应保留where,删去从句中的in,因为关系副词where在从句中作地点状语,in属多余。或删去关系副词where,因为where在这里的意思是in which,否则介词in就重复了。
  2.误:I still remember the day on when I first came to Beijing.
  正:I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing.
  或:I still remember the day on which I first came to Beijing.
  译:我仍记得我第一次来到北京那天的情景。
  析:应删去on,因为when在这里的意思是on which,否则介词on就重复了,或把when改为which。  

  五、在作先行词的时间名词或地点名词后错用了关系代词或关系副词。   
  1.误:I still remember the day when we spent together.
  正:I still remember the day that/which we spent together.
  译:我仍记得我们在一起度过的日子。
  析:应改when为that或which,因为从句中谓语动词spent是及物动词,其后应跟宾语而不是时间状语。  
  2.误:This is the house where we lived in last year.
  正:This is the house which/that we lived in last year.
  译:这是我们去年住过的那个房子。
  析:应改where为which或that,因为从句谓语动词lived后有介词in,其后少介词宾语,而不是地点状语。
    六、在先行词reason后错用关系副词why。如:   
  1.误:Have you asked her for the reason why may explain her absence?
  正:Have you asked her for the reason that/which may explain her absence?
  译:你是否向他问过可以解释他缺席的原因?
  析:应改why为that或which,因为定语从句缺少主语,而不是少原因状语。     

        2.误:I don’t believe the reason why he has given for his being late.
  正:I don’t believe the reason that/which he has given for his being late.
  译:我不相信他所提供的他迟到的原因。
  析:应改why为that或which,因为从句谓语动词has given后缺少宾语,而不是缺少原因状语 。

  七、误将强调句型当定语从句。如:
  1.误:It was in the kitchen where the fire broke out.
  正:It was in the kitchen that the fire broke out.
  译:大火发生在厨房。
  析:应将where改that,因为原句还原为The fire broke out in the kitchen后,在语法和句意上均成立,故此题是强调句型,而非定语从句。  
  2.误:Was it because it snowed last night when you didn’t come?
  正:Was it because it snowed last night that you didn’t come?
  译:你是否因昨晚下雪而没有来?
  析:应将when改为that,因为,原句还原为Because it snowed last night,you didn"t come后,在语法和句意上均成立,故此题是强调句型而非定语从句。


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