2008年全国高考英语I卷完形填空试题分析(鲁子问) - 给力英语
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2008年全国高考英语I卷完形填空试题分析(鲁子问)

发布:englishfan    时间:2008-09-29 21:11:57     浏览:5764次    [划词翻译已启用]

完形填空试题是基于格式塔心理学设计的语言测试试题,可以通过检测学生的语篇图式建构能力来评价学生的阅读理解能力,还可以通过选词完成语篇来评价学生基于语篇语境的语词识别理解与运用能力。所以,对完形填空试题进行质量分析,不仅要从语词考点分析、语词语境选择、语词干扰项选择等围观质量视角进行分析,更应该从话题、意念功能、图式这些宏观质量视角进行分析。基于此,我们对2005-2008年的全国高考英语I卷的完形填空试题进行质量分析,并以此探讨其对于完形填空试题设计、阅读理解教学、语词教学的启示,并基于此提出复习备考建议。

 

一、试题分析

(一)2008年试题分析

1.试题

After the birth of my second child, I got a job at a restaurant. Having worked with an experienced  36   for a few days, I was   37  to wait tables on my own. All went  38   that first week. When Saturday night came, I was luckily  39   the tables not far from the kitchen.   40   , I still felt a little hard to carry the heavy trays (托盘)。

    Before I knew it, the  41  was full of people. I moved slowly,   42  every step. I remember how  43   I was when I saw the tray stand near the tables, it looked different from the one I was  44   on. It had nice handles (手柄),which made it  45   to move around. I was pleased with everything and began to  46  I was a natural at this job.

    Then, an old man came to me and said, “Excuse me, dear, my wife and I loved __47  you work. It seems your tray stand has been very  48   to you, but we are getting ready to  49   now, and my wife needs her  50  back.”

    At first his   51  did not get across. “What was he talking about!” Then I got it. I had set my trays on his wife’s orthopedic walker (助步器). I stood frozen as ice, but my face was  52  . I wanted to get into a hole and  53  .

    Since then, I have learned from many mistakes such as the one I just   54   , I have learned to be more  55  and not to be too sure of myself.

36

A. manager

B. assistant

C. cook

D. waitress

37

A. promised

B. invited

C. allowed

D. advised

38

A. well

B. quickly

C. safely

D. wrong

39

A. left

B. given

C. brought

D. shown

40

A. Therefore

B. However

C. Otherwise

D. Finally

41

A. kitchen

B. street

C. restaurant

D. table

42

A. minding

B. changing

C. taking

D. saving

43

A. angry

B. calm

C. sad

D. happy

44

A. fixed

B. trained

C. loaded

D. waited

45

A. slower

B. lighter

C. quieter

D. easier

46

A. believe

B. agree

C. regret

D. pretend

47

A. letting

B. making

C. watching

D. having

48

A. useful

B. familiar

C. unusual

D. interesting

49

A. rest

B. order

C. eat

D. leave

50

A. bag

B. walker

C. tray

D. coat

51

A. idea

B. praise

C. message

D. need

52

A. cold

B. full of joy

C. pale

D. on fire

53

A. lie

B. hide

C. defend

D. stay

54

A. repeated

B. discovered

C. corrected

D. described

55

A. careful

B. patient

C. honest

D. practical

 

2.宏观质量分析

A.话题:日常活动(高中课标话题2)

B.功能意念:遗憾(高中课标功能40)

C.图式:

主人公在生育第二个孩子后重新到餐厅工作(After the birth of my second child, I got a job at a restaurant),由于身体虚弱(文章没有交代),尽管负责照看离厨房不远的桌子(the tables not far from the kitchen),但在搬重盘子(应该是装了比较多食物的盘子,文章中没有交代)时还是感到很难(still felt a little hard to carry the heavy trays),以至于把别人的代步车当作托盘架(I saw the tray stand near the tables,这是错觉)。

这一图式是中学生不具有的,所以才有完形填空进行图式完形的意义。

不过,这一短文还包含了餐厅服务员工作的图式,这可能是很多学生能够推理出来的,但不常去餐厅吃饭的学生,也可能有些没有这一图式。

学生建构本文的两个图式,就能轻易完成这篇短文的完形,尤其是36 waitress, 37 allowed, 39 given, 40 however, 41 restaurant, 42 minding, 43 happy, 45 easier, 48 useful 等,都需要图式的帮助才能完成。

 

3.微观质量案例分析

A.考点分布:

题号

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

考点

名词

动词

副词

动词

副词

名词

动词

形容词

动词

形容词

题号

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

考点

动词

动词

形容词

动词

名词

名词

形容词及短语

动词

动词

形容词

按词性分,为:动词9个,名词4个,形容词4个,词组1个,副词2个。可见,本题主要考查动词、形容词、名词等实义词的词义。

本题37,39,44题都是考查动词的被动语态。

B.语境设计案例分析:

全部小题都是基于语境设计的,不了解上下文就无法完成任何一个小题的选择。

如36小题,若单看Having worked with an experienced  36   for a few days,一句,36小题的4个选项 A. manager; B. assistant; C. cook; D. waitress都可以成为正确答案,但一旦有了前面说的I got a job at a restaurant.后面对于她的工作的描述,我们就可以判断,答案应该是waitress,因为这是她的工作。

C.干扰项设计案例分析:

All went  38   that first week.

38. A. well         B. quickly       C. safely      D. wrong

本小题A、D两个选项语义对立,显然干扰点在于语境理解,只有理解语境就能在二者之间做出选择。后面接着that first week,这样使得B项的语义干扰性加大。后面说到工作中出现一些差池,这样C项在语境上也具有一定的干扰性。所以,本小题的B、C、D3个干扰项都有一定的干扰性。遗憾的是,由于go (went) well是一个学生非常熟悉的短语,well作为A项出现,就明显降低了B、C、D本来的干扰性,使得本题的干扰性大大降低。我们在实验中发现,此题区分度几乎为零,访谈中学生告知,普遍都是从went well得出答案的,后面的选项只是看一下是否可能颠覆前面的选择。而我们把well调整为D项,马上出现很多学生选择quickly这个答案,选择另外两个答案的也明显增加。


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