In general outdoor archery competitions, the target is placed at different distances ranging from 30 meters to 90 meters, however in Paralympic competition only a 70 meter distance is used. In indoor competitions, the distances are 18 meters and 25 meters. The size of the target also varies with the distance. At the longer distances, it has a diameter of 122cm while at the 18 meter distance it is only 40cm.The archery classification system is divided into three different classes: ARST, ARW1 and ARW2.
The competition programme includes Track and Field events, Throwing and Jumping events, the Marathon and Pentathlon. It involves the largest number of male and female athletes and the largest number of events.
A match consists of four ends in the individuals and pairs competitions and of six ends in the team division. Each end continues until both teams have played all of their balls.The match is started by throwing the white target ball or the "jack" into the playing area. The same player also rolls the first Boccia ball as close as possible to the jack. The athletes use their hands, feet or an assistive device where required, to propel the balls. Thereafter the opposing team throws until they get a ball closer to the jack or until they have thrown all of their team's balls. Play then returns to the first team. The end continues in this manner until both teams have thrown all of their balls.
Athletes with cerebral palsy compete on road and track using standard racing bicycles. Athletes with balance difficulties compete on tricycles, but only in Road events. Athletes with a visual impairment compete on tandem bicycles, both Road and Track, with a sighted pilot. Amputees and riders with other permanent physical disabilities, compete on Road and Track, using standard racing bicycles. Athletes who are wheelchair users and are unable to ride a standard racing bicycle, or tricycle, due to severe lower limb disabilities, compete in Road events using three-wheeled handcycles. For all classes, approved disability specific adaptations are permitted, if necessary for the improvement of safety.
In official competitions, Dressage riders compete in two types of competition:
Championship Test: Competitors perform set movements as defined by the IPEC. Freestyle Test (also known as a Kur): Riders create their own pattern of movements called a floor plan. The plan has to incorporate compulsory movements as defined by the IPEC. The test is ridden to music that the rider chooses to match and enhance the paces of the horse. The test should clearly show the unity between rider and horse as well as rhythm and harmony in all the movements and transitions.
Football 5-a-Side 5人制足球
Every Football match is played between two teams with four blind athletes and one sighted or visually impaired goalkeeper on the field as well as five substitutes. Additionally, each team has a guide behind the opponent's goal to direct the players when they shoot.
Football 7-a-Side 7人制足球
Every Football match is played between two teams with seven players on each side, including the goalkeeper. Each team consists of 12 players with three substitutions allowed during each match. A match cannot continue with fewer than four athletes on the field.
A game of Goalball is played by two teams of three players with a maximum of three substitutes on each team. Competition is divided into men's and women's divisions.
The sport is open to athletes with blindness/visual impairment in several weight categories.The contest lasts five minutes, for both men and women and the winner is the athlete who scores an ippon or who scores the greater number of points. The sport is governed by the International Blind Sports Federation (IBSF) and follows the International Judo Federation (IJF) rules used at other top-level, able-bodied judo events, with slight modifications for athletes with a visual impairment, which allow them contact with their opponent before the start of the match.
Athletes with a minimum disability must be at least 14 years of age and must have the ability to fully extend the arms with no more than a 20-degree loss of full extension on either elbow when making an approved lift according to the rules for their bodyweight.
Rowing is the youngest sport in the Paralympic Games. It was introduced to the Paralympic Programme in 2005 and will hold its first Paralympic competitions at the Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games.
Competition is run under the International Sailing Federations (ISAF) Racing Rules of Sailing, the IFDS Race Management and Classification Manuals. Weather permitting, races consist of nine separate runs. Final placings are determined by the accumulation of points scored in each race.
Shooting competitions are divided into two major events: Air Rifle and Pistol competitions at three distance: 10, 25 and 50m. The rules depend on the gun, the distance, the target, the shooting position, the number of shots and the time limit. Competitors accumulate points for the value of their shots.
A FINA standard eight-lane 50m pool is required for competition at the Paralympic Games. Events are conducted as heats for eight competitors per class and with the fastest eight swimmers per class competing in the finals. There are various forms for swimmers to start their race; in the water, a dive start sitting on the starting platform or the typical standing start.
Table Tennis 乒乓球
One match consists of five sets each being played to 11 points. The objective of the game is for the player to cross the ball into the opponent's area, without him or her being able to successfully return it. The game begins with a service and there is a change in service every two points. Athletes are classified into 11 classes. Each game consists of 5, 7 or 9 sets depending on the competition. The winner is the athlete who wins 3, 4 or 5 sets respectively. In case of a tie, the winner is the first to score a two-point difference. For every class of male and female players there are singles, doubles and team matches.
Volleyball Sitting 坐式排球
The goal of the game is for teams to send the ball over the net through the crossing space and to ground it on the court of the opposing team. Each team is allowed to have up to three contacts with the ball, before it returns it towards the opposing team. The block is not considered as a contact.
Each game consists of a maximum of five sets. Each of the first four sets is completed when a team wins 25 points, with a minimum lead of at least two points over the opposing team. A team has a maximum of 12 players, one of which is the team leader and another the libero.
Wheelchair Basketball 轮椅篮球
Every team is comprised of five players and seven substitutes. The match consists of four periods of ten minutes. After the first and the third period there is an interval of one minute. There is a 15-minute interval between the second and third period. If the score is tied at the end of playing time for the fourth period, the match will be continued with an extra period of five minutes or with as many such periods of five minutes as are necessary to break the tie.
参加轮椅篮球的每只队伍，场上有5名运动员，另有7名替补。每场比赛共4节，每节10分钟，第二场结束后，中场休息15分钟。根据运动员在投篮、传球、抢篮板球、带球、移动轮椅时躯干的活动能力不同，分为1 , 1.5 , 2 , 2.5 , 3 , 3.5 , 4 , 4.5共8个分值。
Wheelchair Fencing 轮椅击剑
In the able-bodied sport of Fencing, two fencers compete on a 14-metre strip. In Wheelchair Fencing, the competition is static. The wheelchairs are fixed in place to the ground by metal frames and the chair is preferably clamped to both sides of the frame to keep the chair from tipping. The fencer with the shortest arms decides if the playing area will be at his distance or that of his opponent. One hand holds the fencing weapon and the other is used to hold onto the chair when lunging and recovering.
Wheelchair Rugby 轮椅橄榄球
Wheelchair Rugby is a unique sport combining some elements of Basketball, Handball, and Ice Hockey. The object of the game is to carry the ball across the opposing team's goal line. Two wheels must cross the goal line for a goal to count, and the player must have firm control of the ball when he or she crosses the line.
Wheelchair Tennis 轮椅网球
Wheelchair Tennis appeared for the first time on the Paralympic Programme in Barcelona in 1992. It originated from the USA in the 1970s and continues to develop a strong following of players and fans internationally. The game follows able-bodied Tennis rules and athletes must have high levels of skill, fitness and strategy. The only difference in Wheelchair Tennis competitions is that the ball is allowed to bounce two times - the first bounce being within the bounds of the court.