北京残奥会项目中英文介绍 - 给力英语
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北京残奥会项目中英文介绍

发布:englishfan    时间:2008-09-07 07:44:40     浏览:4493次    [划词翻译已启用]

北京残奥会的比赛项目有20个大项,即射箭、田径、硬地滚球、自行车、马术、5人制足球、7人制足球、盲人门球、盲人柔道、举重、赛艇、帆船、射击、游泳、乒乓球、坐式排球、轮椅击剑、轮椅篮球、轮椅橄榄球和轮椅网球。根据残奥会规则,所有项目将根据运动员的残疾类别和残疾程度进行分级,共设471枚金牌,以保证体育的公平竞争和比赛安全。以下是北京残奥会20个大项的双语介绍:

Archery 射箭

In general outdoor archery competitions, the target is placed at different distances ranging from 30 meters to 90 meters, however in Paralympic competition only a 70 meter distance is used. In indoor competitions, the distances are 18 meters and 25 meters. The size of the target also varies with the distance. At the longer distances, it has a diameter of 122cm while at the 18 meter distance it is only 40cm.The archery classification system is divided into three different classes: ARST, ARW1 and ARW2.

参加残奥会射箭比赛的选手为肢体残疾的运动员。射箭项目根据运动员上下肢和躯干的功能进行分级,站姿称为ARST级;坐姿组为:ARW1级和ARW2级。一般的室外射箭比赛,箭靶距离从30米至90米不等。但是残奥会射箭比赛只设70米靶,分为站姿和坐姿两个组别,包括个人赛和团体赛。

Athletics 田径

The competition programme includes Track and Field events, Throwing and Jumping events, the Marathon and Pentathlon. It involves the largest number of male and female athletes and the largest number of events.

残奥会田径比赛项目包括径赛、田赛、马拉松和五项全能四大类。田径比赛项目的最多的,参加田径比赛的男女运动员人数也是最多的。

Boccia 硬地滚球

A match consists of four ends in the individuals and pairs competitions and of six ends in the team division. Each end continues until both teams have played all of their balls.The match is started by throwing the white target ball or the "jack" into the playing area. The same player also rolls the first Boccia ball as close as possible to the jack. The athletes use their hands, feet or an assistive device where required, to propel the balls. Thereafter the opposing team throws until they get a ball closer to the jack or until they have thrown all of their team's balls. Play then returns to the first team. The end continues in this manner until both teams have thrown all of their balls.

硬地滚球比赛时运动员须坐在轮椅上进行投球,得分以投出的球距目标球的距离计算,累积分最高者获胜。单打与双打比赛每场4局,每局单打每个选手投6个球,双打每个选手投3个球。团体比赛共有6局,每局每队3名队员各投2个球。当参赛者因严重的运动能力障碍影响到四肢时,可使用脚或辅助装置将球推出。投球时,辅助设备不得超过投掷线,臀部不能离开轮椅,否则判为罚分或被取消投掷球。

Cycling 自行车

Athletes with cerebral palsy compete on road and track using standard racing bicycles. Athletes with balance difficulties compete on tricycles, but only in Road events. Athletes with a visual impairment compete on tandem bicycles, both Road and Track, with a sighted pilot. Amputees and riders with other permanent physical disabilities, compete on Road and Track, using standard racing bicycles. Athletes who are wheelchair users and are unable to ride a standard racing bicycle, or tricycle, due to severe lower limb disabilities, compete in Road events using three-wheeled handcycles. For all classes, approved disability specific adaptations are permitted, if necessary for the improvement of safety.

残奥会自行车比赛分为场地赛和公路赛。场地赛包括计时赛、追逐赛、争先赛和团体竞速赛;公路赛包括个人计时赛和长距离个人赛(集体出发)。

Equestrian 马术

In official competitions, Dressage riders compete in two types of competition:

Championship Test: Competitors perform set movements as defined by the IPEC. Freestyle Test (also known as a Kur): Riders create their own pattern of movements called a floor plan. The plan has to incorporate compulsory movements as defined by the IPEC. The test is ridden to music that the rider chooses to match and enhance the paces of the horse. The test should clearly show the unity between rider and horse as well as rhythm and harmony in all the movements and transitions.

残奥会马术比赛分为个人赛和团体赛,包括个人锦标赛比赛和盛装舞步比赛。个人赛分四个等级,团体赛无等级差别。

Football 5-a-Side 5人制足球

Every Football match is played between two teams with four blind athletes and one sighted or visually impaired goalkeeper on the field as well as five substitutes. Additionally, each team has a guide behind the opponent's goal to direct the players when they shoot.

残奥会5人制(盲人)足球专为视力残疾的运动员设立。该项目根据运动员视力伤残程度被分为B1、B2、B3三个级别,上场的5人中4人属于B1级,而守门员为B2级或B3级运动员,也可以是健全运动员。参赛队由5名场上队员和5名替补队员组成,其中包括守门员和替补守门员各1名。

Football 7-a-Side 7人制足球

Every Football match is played between two teams with seven players on each side, including the goalkeeper. Each team consists of 12 players with three substitutions allowed during each match. A match cannot continue with fewer than four athletes on the field.

参加残奥会7人制足球的各队包括守门员在内共7个人在场上比赛,每队有3名替补。

Goalball 盲人门球

A game of Goalball is played by two teams of three players with a maximum of three substitutes on each team. Competition is divided into men's and women's divisions.

盲人门球运动员在比赛时不允许戴眼镜或隐形眼镜。上场运动员一律戴黑眼罩参加比赛。参赛队由3名场上队员和3名替补队员组成。

Judo 柔道

The sport is open to athletes with blindness/visual impairment in several weight categories.The contest lasts five minutes, for both men and women and the winner is the athlete who scores an ippon or who scores the greater number of points. The sport is governed by the International Blind Sports Federation (IBSF) and follows the International Judo Federation (IJF) rules used at other top-level, able-bodied judo events, with slight modifications for athletes with a visual impairment, which allow them contact with their opponent before the start of the match.

残奥会盲人柔道是专门为视力障碍运动员所设立的运动项目。根据运动员视力损伤程度分为3个级别,共同参加比赛。参赛的视力障碍运动员,最低标准应符合最佳已矫正视力低于0.1或视野小于20度。

Powerlifting 力举

Athletes with a minimum disability must be at least 14 years of age and must have the ability to fully extend the arms with no more than a 20-degree loss of full extension on either elbow when making an approved lift according to the rules for their bodyweight.

参加残奥会力举比赛的运动员,以下肢残疾为主,必须达到截肢、脑瘫及其他肢体残疾的最低分级标准,才能具备参赛资格。

Rowing 皮划艇

Rowing is the youngest sport in the Paralympic Games. It was introduced to the Paralympic Programme in 2005 and will hold its first Paralympic competitions at the Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games.

在今年的北京残奥会上,皮划艇首次被列为比赛项目。

Sailing 帆船

Competition is run under the International Sailing Federations (ISAF) Racing Rules of Sailing, the IFDS Race Management and Classification Manuals. Weather permitting, races consist of nine separate runs. Final placings are determined by the accumulation of points scored in each race.

残奥会帆船比赛的运动员分级工作由国际残疾人帆船协会(IFDS)任命的分级委员会进行。根据可能会对运动员在驾驶帆船中所需要的功能和技巧造成明显限制的特殊障碍,把运动员们分成不同的级别。这些功能和技巧包括平衡和身体稳定性、手部功能、上肢的功能和运动幅度以及视觉灵敏度。

Shooting 射击

Shooting competitions are divided into two major events: Air Rifle and Pistol competitions at three distance: 10, 25 and 50m. The rules depend on the gun, the distance, the target, the shooting position, the number of shots and the time limit. Competitors accumulate points for the value of their shots.

比赛分男子组、女子组和混合组,选手分别参加手枪和****的比赛。手枪分为10米、25米和50米项目,每个小项都采用电子靶。射击比赛的规则因为分项、射程、射击位置、子弹的数量、发射规定时间、靶子和枪的种类不同而不同。在成绩相同的情况下,采用专门规则来决定胜负。残奥会射击比赛规定****包括瞄准器的重量不得超过6公斤,轮椅、凳子、椅子、坐席等统称为"射击椅"。

Swimming 游泳

A FINA standard eight-lane 50m pool is required for competition at the Paralympic Games. Events are conducted as heats for eight competitors per class and with the fastest eight swimmers per class competing in the finals. There are various forms for swimmers to start their race; in the water, a dive start sitting on the starting platform or the typical standing start.

由于身体障碍的限制,残疾人游泳比赛的规则以及竞赛组织都有相应的特殊规定和服务要求。

赛场工作人员只能单独协助运动员完成出入水动作,而不可进行口头交流。对于有视觉障碍的运动员按要求可在个人比赛和接力比赛中有一名工作人员对其进行引导。例如:允许其在总裁判长发出长哨后,发令员发出“各就各位”口令前,由引导员帮助确定方向。全盲运动员比赛过程中接近池壁时,由引导员利用提示棒(竹竿一端绑上海绵)敲击运动员背部提示。

残疾人游泳比赛的自由泳、蛙泳、蝶泳和个人混合泳比赛均采用跳台入水,仰泳和混合泳接力在水中出发。

Table Tennis 乒乓球

One match consists of five sets each being played to 11 points. The objective of the game is for the player to cross the ball into the opponent's area, without him or her being able to successfully return it. The game begins with a service and there is a change in service every two points. Athletes are classified into 11 classes. Each game consists of 5, 7 or 9 sets depending on the competition. The winner is the athlete who wins 3, 4 or 5 sets respectively. In case of a tie, the winner is the first to score a two-point difference. For every class of male and female players there are singles, doubles and team matches.

残奥会乒乓球比赛分为坐姿组和站姿组比赛,坐姿组要坐在轮椅上进行比赛,采用五局11分制。每组设有5个级别,每个级别都设有男、女单打和团体项目。男、女坐姿1-5级、站姿6-10级还设有不分级别的公开级比赛。在团体比赛中可以合并级别比赛。

Volleyball Sitting 坐式排球

The goal of the game is for teams to send the ball over the net through the crossing space and to ground it on the court of the opposing team. Each team is allowed to have up to three contacts with the ball, before it returns it towards the opposing team. The block is not considered as a contact.

Each game consists of a maximum of five sets. Each of the first four sets is completed when a team wins 25 points, with a minimum lead of at least two points over the opposing team. A team has a maximum of 12 players, one of which is the team leader and another the libero.

残奥会坐式排球比赛方式与奥运会排球比赛方式基本相同。不同的是运动员坐在地板上进行比赛,场地小于健全人比赛场地。

坐式排球是一项集体比赛项目,每队由12名队员组成,两队各派6名队员在由球网分开的场地上进行比赛。比赛的目的是各队遵照规则,将球击过球网,使其落在对方场区的地面上,而防止球落在本方场区的地面上。每队可击球三次(拦网触球除外),将球击回对区。坐式排球比赛采用五局三胜制,胜三局的队胜一场。
 


Wheelchair Basketball 轮椅篮球

Every team is comprised of five players and seven substitutes. The match consists of four periods of ten minutes. After the first and the third period there is an interval of one minute. There is a 15-minute interval between the second and third period. If the score is tied at the end of playing time for the fourth period, the match will be continued with an extra period of five minutes or with as many such periods of five minutes as are necessary to break the tie.

参加轮椅篮球的每只队伍,场上有5名运动员,另有7名替补。每场比赛共4节,每节10分钟,第二场结束后,中场休息15分钟。根据运动员在投篮、传球、抢篮板球、带球、移动轮椅时躯干的活动能力不同,分为1 , 1.5 , 2 , 2.5 , 3 , 3.5 , 4 , 4.5共8个分值。

Wheelchair Fencing 轮椅击剑

In the able-bodied sport of Fencing, two fencers compete on a 14-metre strip. In Wheelchair Fencing, the competition is static. The wheelchairs are fixed in place to the ground by metal frames and the chair is preferably clamped to both sides of the frame to keep the chair from tipping. The fencer with the shortest arms decides if the playing area will be at his distance or that of his opponent. One hand holds the fencing weapon and the other is used to hold onto the chair when lunging and recovering.

男子有花剑、重剑、佩剑三个剑种,女子只有花剑和重剑两个剑种。比赛包括个人赛和团体赛,团体比赛每队有3名运动员参加,其中至少有1名B级的运动员(躯干活动度和持剑手有严重功能障碍的运动员)。

Wheelchair Rugby 轮椅橄榄球

Wheelchair Rugby is a unique sport combining some elements of Basketball, Handball, and Ice Hockey. The object of the game is to carry the ball across the opposing team's goal line. Two wheels must cross the goal line for a goal to count, and the player must have firm control of the ball when he or she crosses the line.

轮椅橄榄球的规则结合了篮球、橄榄球和冰球等项目的特点而制定。每个球队最多12名参赛队员,每队同一时间场上队员不超过4名。上场4名队员伤残分值之和不能超过8分。

轮椅橄榄球运动是一个特殊的集体球类项目。比赛中允许男、女混合组队参加,但每个国家和地区只能有一支球队,男、女运动员可以同场竞技,不再设置男子组、女子组,所以比赛项目只有一个大项。

Wheelchair Tennis 轮椅网球

Wheelchair Tennis appeared for the first time on the Paralympic Programme in Barcelona in 1992. It originated from the USA in the 1970s and continues to develop a strong following of players and fans internationally. The game follows able-bodied Tennis rules and athletes must have high levels of skill, fitness and strategy. The only difference in Wheelchair Tennis competitions is that the ball is allowed to bounce two times - the first bounce being within the bounds of the court.

轮椅网球运动1976年由美国人发起。1988年成立国际轮椅网球联合会(IWTF)。1988年第八届韩国汉城残奥会上轮椅网球首次成为表演项目,从1992年第九届西班牙巴塞罗那残奥会起正式作为比赛项目。

残奥会轮椅网球项目规则与奥运会网球规则基本相同。轮椅网球有特殊规定:允许网球在被回击前有两次反弹(如果接一次反弹球,该球必须是在场地界内弹起;如果是接两次反弹球,该球在被击回前的第二次反弹既可在界内,也可在界外。

(Source: IPC/新华网)


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